PSY 210 - Chapter 5 LearnSmart

Later studies offered which of the following critiques of Gesell's work on the development of motor skills?

-Heredity is not as much of a factor in the development of motor skills as Gesell indicated.
-Developmental milestones are not a fixed sequence of developments.

According to dynamic systems theory, what is required before infants can begin to develop their motor skills and perform actions?

They must perceive something in the environment that motivates them to act.

According to the dynamic systems theory, the action of infants feeding themselves with spoons requires maturation of the nervous system. What specific action of self-spoonfeeding is related to this maturation?

The control of the hand moving from the bowl to the mouth.

According to dynamic systems theory, motor development is a(n) ________ process.

Active

Motor development is embedded because

Environmental circumstances can facilitate or restrict its possibilities

True or false: the development of motor skills in infants is culturally influenced.

True

According to developmentalist Arnold Gesell, infants and children develop motor skills:

In a fixed sequence

What is the purpose of reflexes?

They allow infants to respond adaptively to their environment.

Which theory of matter development suggests that perceptions are necessary for infants to fine-tune their movements and that motor skills represent solutions to the infants' goals?

Dynamic systems theory

The purpose of the rooting reflex is to:

Direct the infant to turn its head toward something to suck

According to the dynamic systems theory, which of the following is not a critical factor in motor actions that an infant engages in?

The infant's temperament

What is the purpose of the Moro reflex?

It is believed to be a way of grabbing for support while falling

Which of the following reflexes does not disappear, but instead turns into a complex, voluntary action?

The grasping reflex

As infants expand their motor skills, they gain their independence in learning and exploring the world, which helps to improve their cognitive and social emotional development. This is because motor development is ________.

Enabling

Behaviors that are built in reactions to stimuli that allow infants to respond to their environment before they have learned the behavior are called:

Reflexes

The new perspective on infant reflexes is that they are:

Not beyond an infant's control.

The __________ reflex occurs when the infants cheek is stroked or the side of the mouth is touched and the infant turns its head toward the side that was touched.

Rooting

Which of the following activities is not a gross motor skill?

Tying shoes

The ___________ reflex occurs in response to beginning to fall, or to being startled by a sudden noise or movement.

Moro

Newborn infants cannot voluntarily control their posture; it is not until they are __________ months of age that they can sit independently.

6 or 7

Which of the following reflexes greatly diminish or disappear by the fourth month of life?

-Moro
-Grasping
-Rooting

Which of the following describe for key aspects that reflect the dynamic systems theory of development?

-Enabling
-Embedded
-Enculturated
-Embodied

According to the old view, infants reflexive behaviors are:

Genetic

Gross motor skills:

Involve large muscle activities

Which of the following behaviors/movements are precursors to walking?

-Alternating kicking movements
-Stabilizing balance

What ability must an infant have as a foundation for gross motor skill development?

Postural control

14-month-old Sophie began walking at the age of 11 months. She was categorized as an "experienced" walker in a recent research study. The babies in the study have to walk down a risky slope. From what we know about "experienced" walkers, what can we expec

Sophie will pause and evaluate the slope before starting down it.

As a child learns to walk, her changing body interacts with experiences and opportunities to walk as she physically grows. This is best categorized by which of the following?

Embodied

A key skill in learning to walk involves:

Stabilizing balance on one leg

Nearly crawling infants will do what with the navigation of a steep slope?

Proceed and probably fall

How might learning to walk promote language development in children?

It allows them to initiate interaction with parents and other adults.

Isabel is a four month old baby who loves to hold onto her rattle. She shakes it repeatedly without dropping it. Which reflex is associated with how this behavior became possible

The grasping reflex

In terms of the motor development milestones, which of the following can we expect to be true?

Not all infants follow the standard sequence of motor accomplishments

In a recent study, which of the following aspects of pregnancy and delivery showed the strongest link to the infant reaching motor skills earlier?

Larger size at birth

What recommendation do most infant experts give regarding structured exercise classes for babies?

Structured exercise classes are not recommended

For an infant who has mobile, which of the following might cause delay in motor development?

Swaddling

When an infant learns to walk, it

Promotes change in other aspects of their development

Which of the following is required for an infant to develop a skill such as sitting, crawling, or walking?

Behavioral flexibility

Both Bella and Kenny are 12 months old. What can we expect regarding their motor skill development?

Bella and Kenny may not follow the same sequence of motor skill accomplishments

When they go to the playground, Gaia climbs to the top and lays daringly down across the bars. She is most likely what age?

5

In a recent study, all of the following were linked to the earlier development of motor skills in infants except:

Maternal smoking

Which of the following statements is true regarding elementary school children and gross motor development?

Elementary school children feel a sense of accomplishment with running, jumping, or bicycling.

Which of the following gross motor skills is not typically mastered in the second year of life?

Jumping across distance

The positives of children's participation in organized sports include which of the following?

-Developing peer relations
-Learning how to compete
-Enhanced self-esteem

True or false: mothers in developing countries tend to stimulate their infants motor skills more than mothers in developed countries.

True

And infants movements cannot be repeated in the same way overtime in a different situation because their bodies, the environments in which they behave, and the tasks they face change. This requires

Adaptive behavior

Which of the following is true regarding peak physical performance?

It occurs both for average adults and for outstanding athletes

At three years of age a child enjoys motor movements such as:

-Jumping
-Hopping
-Running

After an individual reaches the age of ________, most biological functions begin to decline.

30

Which of the following are true regarding the development of gross motor skills in middle and late childhood?

-Children who fail to develop basic motor skills face long-term negative effects
-Boys usually outperform girls in gross motor skills during this period

The negatives that can accompany childhood organize sport activity include which of the following?

-Pressure to win
-Unrealistic expectations
-Physical injuries

Limited mobility has been linked to which of the following in older adults?

-Obesity
-Lower cognitive functioning
-Falling risk

Infants who are massaged and stretched and give an opportunity for exercise often

Reach developmental milestones earlier

Typically, individuals reach their peak physically between the ages of:

19 and 26

Declines in biological functions after age 30 may include which of the following?

-Cardiovascular functioning
-Flexibility
-Neural function

Each year about 200,000 adults in late adulthood fracture of hip due to a fall. Half of these people will die within one year, usually from:

Pneumonia

Which of the following activities is not considered a fine motor skill?

Riding a tricycle

At birth, infants have:

Hardly any control over fine motor skills

What is the grasp called when an infant grips with the whole hand

Palmer

Coordinated grasping requires

Perceptual-motor coupling

Which of the following would give the most insight into problem-solving in infants?

Tool use

An activity that requires finger dexterity would be referred to as a:

Fine motor skill

During middle and late childhood, increased __________ of the central nervous system contributes to improved motor skills.

Myelination

Which of the following statements is true regarding fine motor skills in infancy?

Newborns already have many components that will become finally coordinated finger movements

True or false: fine motor skills may undergo some decline in middle and late adulthood as dexterity decreases.

True

The eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin are all considered to be:

Sensory receptors

In order to coordinate grasping, on which perceptual system would a four month old most likely rely?

Touch

The interpretation of sensory information is called ________.

Perception

True or false: unlike gross motor skills, There is no need for infants to exercise their fine motor skills.

False

The __________ view connects perceptual capabilities to information available in the world of the perceiver.

Ecological

True or false: children's gross and fine motor skills are associated with cognitive function.

True

________ are The opportunities for interaction offered by objects that fit within our capabilities to perform activities.

Affordances

Which of the following would most impact in older adult's fine motor skills?

Weakness in hands

A researcher who studies whether an infant can distinguish one stimulus from another measuring the length of time the infant attend two different stimuli is using which of the following methods?

Visual preference

The reaction that occurs when information interacts with the eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, or skin is referred to as:

Sensation

Which of the following statements is correct regarding the visual acuity of infants?

An infant's visual acuity past six months of age is 20/40

Which of the following best describes the interpretation of the air waves that connect contact the ears as a musical sound?

Perception

True or false: experience is necessary for color vision to develop normally.

True

Which of the following statements is consistent with Gibson's ecological view of perceptual development in infancy?

We directly perceive information that exists in the world around us

When sensory stimulation is changing (for instance, seeing the same object at different distances), but perception of the physical world remains the same, an infant is experiencing:

Perceptual constancy

According to Eleanor and James Gibson, an infant who runs down a steep slope or crawls across a narrow beam is determining the

Affordances of the slope or beam

The realization that your mother has the same appearance and does not shrink as you watch her walk away from you (even though she appears to get smaller) means that you understand ___________ constancy.

Size

____________ is when an infant can decrease responding to a stimulus after repeated exposure; whereas __________ is the recovery of a stimulus.

Habituation; dishabituation

On the well-known Snellen chart that is used for examinations, a newborns vision acuity is estimated to be:

20/240

By ___________ of age, infants have similar color preferences to adults; for example, they prefer saturated colors over pale ones.

4 months

The recognition that an object remains the same shape even though its orientation to us changes is called:

Shape constancy

Sean is an infant who is capable of understanding that his mother is still his mother whether he sees her right in front of him, from across the room, or as she waves from her car window. This capability is called:

Perceptual constancy

Which of the following are factors in perceptual completion?

-Self-directed exploration with eye movements
-Learning
-Experience

The recognition that an object remains the same dimensions even if the retinal image of the object changes as you move toward or away from the object is a specific type of perceptual constancy known as _________ constancy.

Size

___________ is the visual ability observed in infants by about 3 to 4 months of age that provides us with some insight into whether an infant can experience depth perception.

Binocular cues to depth

Which of the following is most often used to assess an infants attention to sound?

High-amplitude sucking

All of the following are changes in vision that occur in childhood, as opposed to infancy, except:

The ability to use binocular cues to perceive depth � 3 to 4 months
During childhood:
-The ability to focus and sustain attention on close-up objects
-Development of our muscles adequate to scan across a series of letters
-Greater efficiency at detecting

Caleb understands that his teddy bear has two arms and legs, even though he can't see the legs of his teddy bear when he peaks over the edge of his crib and sees the bear on the floor. Caleb has:

Shape constancy

Older adults experience which of the following visual changes as they age?

-Declines in visual acuity
-Problems with color vision
-Diseases of the eye

Infants at the age of two months develop the ability to perceive that partially __________ objects are whole.

Occluded

The laboratory procedure constructed by Gibson and walk to determine whether or not an infant could perceive depth is called

The visual cliff

Which of the following declines in vision begin to happen in middle age?

-Reduced blood supply to eyes
-Need for more light to work or read
-Presbyopia

When 68-year-old Mary enters a movie theater, she finds that her eyes take longer to adjust to the darkness than I used to. The situation illustrates the result of a decline in ___________ as people age.

Dark adaptation

Which of the following are possible signs of vision problems in children?

-Rubbing the eyes
-Shutting or covering one eye
-Blinking or squinting excessively
-Tilting we had to look at something

A yellowing of the lens affects how well an individual perceives

Color

True or false: researchers have found that visual decline in late adulthood is linked to cognitive decline and an increase in social contacts.

False

As people age they may find it more difficult to determine how close or far away or how high or low something is. This is a reflection of the impact of age on:

Depth perception

The loss of ability to focus on close objects that often occurs in middle age is called:

Presbyopia

Visual decline in older adults can often be traced to a reduction in the quality or intensity of light that reaches the:

Retina

What condition involves a thickening of the lens of the eye, which causes vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted?

Cataracts

Color vision in later adulthood may decline because of a yellowing of the __________ of the eye.

Lens

Which of the following are true of glaucoma?

-It can be treated with eyedrops
-If untreated, it can result in blindness

Alice, who is 75, lives independently but sometimes has difficulty perceiving where steps or curbs are. The situation illustrates a problem with __________ in later adulthood.

Depth perception

___________ is a disease that involves a deterioration of the focal center of the visual field.

Macular degeneration

When can sound first be perceived?

During the last two months of pregnancy

Which of the following is a common treatment for cataracts?

Surgical removal

What are some of the changes in hearing that take place during infancy?

-Pitch
-Localization
-Loudness

What is the medical condition that happens when excess pressure inside the eye causes damage to the optic nerve?

Glaucoma

True or false: although most adolescents hearing is excellent, listening to loud sound through headphones for sustained periods of time is always a concern, given it creates the risk of developing hearing problems.

True

Hearing can start to decline by the age of

40

People with macular degeneration

May be able to see on the periphery but not what is directly in front of them.

The primary neural receptor for hearing in the inner ear is called the:

Cochlea

Which of the following can be inferred as an outcome of the research by DeCasper and Spenser in which mothers read The Cat in the Hat to their fetuses and then to their child post-birth.

-Fetuses can hear
-Fetuses can learn

Hearing aids amplify sound to help reduce _________ hearing loss.

Middle-ear-based conductive

Infants are more likely to hear _________-pitched sounds.

High

Dual sensory loss in vision and hearing has been linked to increased:

Loneliness

Adolescent hearing loss has been related to:

Lower academic performance

Which of the following reflexes demonstrates that infants can feel touch?

The rooting reflex

The ability to hear _________ sounds is most likely to remain static in middle adulthood.

Lose-pitched
High-pitch declines earlier

What kind of study did Megan Gunnar and colleagues conduct that concluded newborns were capable of feeling pain?

A study of circumcision of infant males

Hearing problems in older adults have been associated with which of the following?

-Increased falls
-Increased loneliness
-Accelerated cognitive decline

With regard to pain sensitivity for lower pain intensities, older adults are:

Less sensitive to pain than younger adults

Some neurosensory hearing loss can be restored with ________ implants.

Cochlear

What type of smells do newborns prefer?

Smell such as strawberry and vanilla

Outcomes for older adults with dual sensory loss are:

Poor

At which age do infants begin to prefer salty tastes?

4 months

What is the common understanding regarding infants and the sensation of touch?

Newborns are capable of feeling touch

True or false: the pain threshold in newborns occurs at a lower level of stimulation than that for adults.

True

When watching a hockey game, spectators can hear the sound of the stick hitting the puck and see the puck slide across the ice. This ability is known as:

Intermodal perception

Some research on older adults sensitivity to touch found that older adults are less sensitive to touch on their _________ extremities than on their __________ extremities.

Lower; upper

Which statement about smell in infancy is true?

Infants recognize their mothers smell within about a week of being born.

Which of the following statements is true regarding the taste capacities of a newborn?

Sensitivity to taste appears to develop prenatally

Which of the following statements are true regarding an intense capacity for intermodal perception?

-Experience improves an infants intermodal perception
-Babies are born with the ability for intermodal perception

The integration of information from two or more sensory modalities is called:

Intermodal perception

Today it is clear that perception development is influenced by

Nature, nurture, and a developing sensitivity to information

Which are some of the possible consequences of the decline in smell that occurs throughout adulthood?

-Reduction in the ability to detect smoke from a fire
-Reduced life satisfaction
-Reduced enjoyment of food

The current view of perceptual-motor coupling in infants is the:

Dynamic systems view

True or false: early, exploratory forms of intermodal perception exist even in newborns.

True

drivers over the age of 65 are involved in more auto accidents as a result of ___________.

-Not yielding the right of way
-Improper turns
-Not obeying traffic signs

What is the common understanding regarding infants in the satisfaction of touch?

Newborns are capable of feeling touch

Those who emphasize learning and experience in perceptual development are called:

Empiricists

Perception and ___________ are coupled with each other. This is a demonstration through the movement of one's head, hands, arms, and eyes.

Action

Cognitive training programs are shown have shown some success in older adults, including in which of the following?

-Improving their driving safety
-Making driving less difficult