exam 1 ch. 2

energy in action is _______ ________

kinectic energy

stored energy (inactive) is _______ ________

potential energy

stored in the bonds of chemical substances is _________ energy.

chemical

_________ energy results from the movement of charged particles

electrical

_________ energy is directly involved in moving matter. (example: when you ride a bike your legs provide the _______ energy to move the pedals).

mechanical

________ energy travels in waves (important for vision).

radiant

____ is the primary energy transferring molecule in cells and provides a form of energy that is immediately usable by all body cells.

ATP

ATP has ________ potential energy

chemical

without _____ molecules can't be made or degraded, cells can't transport substances across their membrane boundaries.
- muscles can't shorten to tug on their other structures
- life processes cease

ATP

Neurons are able to communicate with one another by sending impulses. These impulses (also known as action potentials) are formed as sodium cations diffuse through the membranes of the neurons. What type of energy would the movement of these ions represen

electrical kinetic energy

_______ bonds is a chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another.
- strongest bond because of opposite charges
-Holds sodium and chloride atoms together in table salt

ionic

_______ bonds is electron sharing to both atoms so that each atom can fill their outer shell
- holds carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms together in glucose molecules

covalent

_______ bonds are more like attractions instead of a true bond.
-Is the weakest bond
-attracts water molecules
-keeps proteins folded in their proper 3D structure

Hydrogen

Water has a ______ _____ ______, it absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before changing appreciably in temperature itself.
-Water is able to absorb high amount of heat before increasing in temperature, allowing humans to maintain body temperature.

High heat capacity

_______ _____ of _________- water evaporates into a gas. (Example: when we seat, heat is removed from our bodies helping us cool down)

High heat of vaporization

______ solvent- aka water is called the "universal solvent". Water is the body's major transport medium because it is such an excellent solvent.
-rids metabolic waste through urine (watery fluid)

polar solvent

_______- water is an important "reactant" in many chemical reactions.
-example: foods are digested to their building blocks by adding a water molecule to each band to be broken. (hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis)

Reactivity

________-water forms a resilient "cushion" around certain body organs, to help protect them from physical trauma.

cushioning

_______ ______- more attraction and tighter hydrogen molecules at the "surface" of water.
-the surface of water molecules

surface tension

______ are an ionic compound containing cations and anions.

salts

all ions are _______ , substances that conduct an electrical current in a solution.

electrolytes

________ acquires a net positive charge

cation (think of the t in cation as a positive sign)

______ acquires a net negative charge.

anion
**both cation and anion are formed whenever electron transfer between atoms occur

cation or anion?
1.Sodium?
2.potassium?
3.calcium?
4.chloride?
5.most ionic proteins?

1.cation
2.cation
3.cation
4.anion
5.anion

________:
-has sour taste
-releases hydrogen ions
-dissolves many metals
proton donors
0-6 PH

Acid

______:
-bitter taste
-slippery
-proton acceptor
8-14 PH

Base

a _______ acts as a stabilizer

buffer

the _____ the PH, the stronger it is, and the more hydrogen ion concentration.

smaller
Example: a PH of 2 is stronger than a PH of 4.
-a ph of 2 is 10 times stronger than a ph of 3
-a ph of 2 is 100 times stronger than a ph of 4 (10x10=100)

________ is sugar and starches
-major functions in the body is to provide ready, easy to use cellular fuel

carbohydrates

Which of the following organic molecule groups provides the best source of easily usable energy for the synthesis of ATP?

carbohydrates

______ are insoluble in water
-contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

lipids

Which organic molecule group is used to construct the plasma membranes of our cells, steroid hormones, and certain vitamins?

lipids

__________ is the chief components of the cell membrane.
-participate in the transport of lipids in plasma
-prevalent in nervous tissue.

phospholipids

______ are flat molecules made of 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings.
-cholesterol found in raw materials, vitamin d, steroid hormones, and bile salts.

steroids

________ fats- fatty acid chains are straight at room temp, packed closely together, and is solid.

saturated fats

__________ fats has double bonds, causing the fatty acid chains to kink causing it not to solidify (is liquid or oily at room temp)

unsaturated fats

_______ is the basic structure material of the body.
-contains Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, ad nitrogen.
important roles are:
growth and maintenance
Acts as a messenger
provides structure
transports

protein

Which of the following organic molecule groups is used for things like structural support (such as collagen), movement (such as myosin), fighting infections (such as antibodies), and metabolism (such as enymes)?

proteins

________ __________ protons -channel proteins helps molecules across the membrane via passive transport, a process called facilitated diffusion.

membrane transport protons

_______ speeds up the rate of chemical reactions

enzymes

________- specialized proteins released by immune cells that recognize and inactivate foreign substances.

antibodies

________- help to regulate metabolic activity, growth, and development.

hormones

2 structural proteins are:
1.
2.

1.keratin
2.collegan

________ ______- are composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
-DNA & RNA
- are the largest molecules in the body

nucleic acids

2 major types of nucleic acids found are :
1.
2.

1.DNA
2.RNA

nucleic acids primary functions are to:

provide information for protein synthesis
main information carrying molecules of the cell