Nutrition Worksheets Flashcards

function of upper esophageal sphincter

open/close entrance to esophagus

function of cardiac sphincter

open/close entrance between esophagus and stomach

function of pyloric sphincter

open/close at bottom of the stomach to let food into small
intestines. allows a few mls at a time so SI can neutralize the
stomach acid with bicarbonate to decrease injury to SI and because SI
enzymes needs neutral pH

function of ileocecal sphincter

located between end of ileum and cecum. prevents backflow of colon
contents into SI

function of anal sphincter

control of defacation

what precursor molecule does pepsin come from and what type of cell
makes this precursor?

pepsin comes from pepsinogen and is secreted by chief cells. exocrine signaling

what parameter limits pepsins function?

pepsin is pH sensitive. Activated at low pH, high pH inactive.

which hormone is secreted by thoughts of food and food in the stomach?


what is gastrin secreted from?

the pyloric region of the stomach and duodenum

acid and protease production in the stomach is stimulated by what hormone?


which hormone is secreted in response to acid chyme and protein
digested in the duodenum?


where is secretin secreted from?

duodenum and jejunum

what does secretin stimulate the pancreas to produce and secrete?


fats and protein in duodenum stimulates this hormone

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

where is CCK secreted from?

duodenum and jejunum

what hormone stimulates the flow of bile and pancreatic fluids into
the duodenum?


what receptors attract us to carbs and salt?

salt and sweet

what receptors repel us from toxins?


receptors that repel us from acidic/fermented food?


receptors attract us to protein?


umami receptors detect which AA? and name the stable form of the AA.

glutamate and stable form is MSG

how is surface area increased in the small intestines?

microvilli and villi increase surface area for absorption by 600x

How much energy do carbs supply?

4 kcal/g

How much energy do proteins supply?

4 g/kcal

How much energy does alcohol supply?

7 kcal/g

How much energy do fats supply?

9 kcal/g

which molecule links TCA cycle with gluconeogenesis?


Fiber is made of _____ linkages that point _______and are not able to
be digested by humans

Beta, upward

starch and glycogen have ________ linkages that point _________ and
are able to be digested

alpha, downward

In the disease PKU, the enzyme ___________________________ is missing
or reduced. This decreases the amount of the
amino acid ____________________ causing it to become a(n)
___________________ amino acid. It also causes a build-up of the amino acid
__________________________which results in the removal of its ________
in a _________________________________ reaction converting it into
_______________. If left untreated it can cause mental retardation
because accumulation of __________________ blocks other amino acids
from crossing the _________________________.

phenylalanine hydroxylase. tyrosine. essential. phenylalanine.
NH2. transamination. Phenylpyruvate. phenylalanine. blood
brain barrier

what food can PKU people not eat?


monosaccharides of maltose

2 glucose molecules

monosaccharides of lactose

glucose and galactose

monosaccharides of sucrose

fructose and glucose

monosaccharides of raffinose

glucose, fructose, and galactose

What are the benefits of carbohydrates?

Support glycogen reserves in muscle Support glycogen
reserves in liver (needed from brain metabolism) Protects
against ketosis and protein loss Provides fiber

benefits of soluble fiber

Binds glucose so slows glucose absorption & reduces
risk of diabetes Binds cholesterol and bile
which increases their excretion & reduces risk of
cardiovascular disease Reduces appetite &
reduces risk of obesity Feeds microbiota
of colon & supports GI track and immune system and
suppresses inflammation
Lowers risk of breast cancer
Decreases Asthma
Decreases mortality rates
Helps prevent Crohn�s disease

how are calcium and fiber related?

Cell injury caused by fiber leads to Ca++ influx. The
Ca++ causes the mucus filled vesicles inside the cell to
come to the surface and fuse together to repair the plasma membrane.
During the repair, the vesicles release their mucus into the lumen of
the large intestine and helps decrease diverticulitis.

what does the microbiota in the colon ferment soluble fiber into and
what are the benefits?

Soluble fiber is fermented by the colonic bacteria into
acids like butyric acid. Organic acids provide energy
and carbons, and they also are used as signals to the GI track and
body (signals can effect things like the immune system and mood)