NUT Exam 1: chapters 1, 2, 5

Identify 3 characteristics of an "Essential Nutrient

1) removal from diet has adverse health impact;
2) adding back to diet before permanent damage has been done restores health;
3) has a specific biological function (e.g. calcium for bone growth; beta-carotine for eyesight, water hydrates, etc.)

#1 and #2 causes of death in the U.S.

1) cardiovascular/heart diseases;
2) cancers

Differentiate between MACROnutrients and MICROnutrients

macro: CHOs; Lipids; protein (and water);
micro: vitamins and minerals

Identify the 6 classes of nutrients

CHOs, Lipids, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, Water

Animal vs. vegetable fat

animal is saturated and solid at room temp;
vegetable is unsaturated and liquid at room temp

Define phytochemicals, zoochemicals, and role in prevention of chronic diseases

physiologically active compounds;
not considered essential nutrients but provide significant benefits:
research indicates reduced cancer risk among those who eat lots of fruits and vegetables;
phyto and zoo have been linked to reduced risk of cv disease.

3 energy-yielding nutrients

CHOs, Lipids, Protein
(note: alcohol is energy yielding but NOT a nutrient)

define: "Calorie

a calorie is a unit of measurement; specifically the calorie count of 1 oz of food that, when heated, raises the temperature of water by 1 degree F.

9-4-4-7 kcals/gram

Calories per gram of:
Lipids: 9 kcal/gram;
CHOs: 4 kcal/gram;
Protein: 4 kcal/gram;
Alcohol: 9 kcal/gram

Fiber - analyzed

Fiber is an essential nutrient but effectively contains no kcals because it is not digested by the body. Because it's not digestible, it does not enter the blood stream, does not provide energy.

2002 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)

CHOs: 45-65% of total kcals;
Lipids: 20-35% of total kcals;
Protein: 10-35% of total kcals

AHA recommended AMDRs

<30% total kcals from fat;
<7-10% from saturated

Which nutrient should provide the greatest % of total kcals/energy in the diet?


Name several influences on Food Behavior

schedule; budget; education; taste/senses; culture; geographic considerations; marketing

3 elements - foundation of a healthy diet

1) variety
2) balance
3) moderation

Name each food group from left to right and examples of each food (

1) Grains (orange): bread, rice, wheat, quinoa, cereal, crackers, pasta;
2) Vegetables (green): broccoli; dry beans; peas; bell peppers; carrots;
3) Fruits (red): blueberries; peaches; mangoes; grapes; juices in moderation; bananas
4) Discretionary Calori

Foods in the "discretionary calories" category

Solid fats or added sugars (whole milk, cheese, sausage, biscuits, sweetened cereal, sweetened yogurt);
Foods with added fats or sweeteners (sauces, salad dressings, sugar, syrup, and butter);
Mostly fats, caloric sweeteners, and/or alcohol, such as candy

Nutrition, defined

The science of food; the nutrients, the substances therein, their action, interaction, and the balance in relation to helath and disease; and the process in which the organism (e.g. human body) ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes

Nutrients, defined

Chemical substances in food that nourish the body by providing energy, building materials for body parts, and factors to regulate vital chemical processes in the body

2005 Dietary Guidelines for americans - weight management

To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calorie intake from foods and beverages with energy expended.
To preven gradual weight loss over time, make small decreases in calorie intake from food and beverages and increase physical activity.

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans - Physical Activity

Achieve physical fintess by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercies for flexibility, and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strentgh and endurance.
Recommendation: Older adults. Participate in regular physical activity to r

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) - what 2 countries are the DRIs designed for?

U.S. and Canada

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) - established fur use by a healthy individual or healthy population groups?

Population groups

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) - appropriate for individuals who are undernourished or with specific diseases?


What are "Tolerable Upper Intake Levels?" Karen calls them "upper toxicity levels

maximum chronic taily intake levels of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. Not all nutrients have an upper toxicity level.

RDA for protein and how to calculate

0.8g protein/kg of healthy body weight/day
body weight in pounds divided by 2.2 = kg
kg x 0.8 = RDA for protein
ex: my current weight of 165 pounds
165/2.2*0.8=60 grams of protein

Nutritional labeling - moderated by whom?

US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

are "supplements" strictly regulated by the government?


Ingredient List - what order are the ingredients listed on a food label?

the ingredient contained the most is listed first; the one with the least is listed last

Percentage of total kcals from fat - Austin Peanut Butter Crackers: 9 grams of fat; 190 total calories

fat g
9 / total kcals

Percentage of total kcals from protein - Austin Peanut Butter Crackers: 4 grams of protein; 190 total calories

protein g
4 / total kcals

Percentage of total kcals from CHOs - Austin Peanut Butter Crackers: 23 grams of CHOs; 190 total calories

4/total calories


May reduce the risk of certain cancers and/or heart disease
fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds


include omega 3 fatty acids, probiotics (healthy bacteria, as a food supplement they are often in the form of live cultures; probiotics live in the colon

Calorie, defined (SHORT)

The amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water, 1 degree celcius

3 oz of cooked meat is the size of:

a deck of cards


1/2 of the plate s/b vegetable;
1/4 of the plate s/b whole grains;
1/4 of the plate s/b lean meat and/or protein
baseball and comp. mouse for veggies;
CD and cassette tape for grains;
deck of cards for meat
golf ball = 2 tbsp of peanut butter;
4 dice = 1

American Cancer Society (AMA) guidance

Eat less fat
Eat more fruits and veggies. Phytochemicals=good
cut down on smoked and salt-cured meats (ham, bacon, hot doges) to cut out nitrates
Watch our weight - get exercise
Sun - cover up between 10am and 3pm
don't smoke

Health " claims approved by FDA for food labeling

a diet with enough calcium may reduce the risk of osteoporosis;
A diet low in total fat may reduce risk of some cancers;
A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease;
A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol tha


Type of dietary fiber found in the seeds of the plantago plant.


glucose, fructose, galactose
(fructose and galactose are converted into glucose once they are in the body)


sucrose (glu + fru),
lactose (glu + gal),
maltose (glu + glu)



plant starches (Grains and starchy vegetables)

amylose and amylopectin

animal/human starch


glycogen is the

storage form of glucose in the body

dietary fiber

indigestible polysaccharide (insoluble and soluble)

lactose intolerance - symptoms and options for treatment

Lactose is a disaccharide bonded with a beta bond and more difficult for the human body to break down. The enzyme "Lactase" breaks up lactose in to monosaccharides; if lastase isn't present or working, it creates lactose intolerance. symptoms include diah

3 functions of glucose/other CHOs

1) energy/fuel supply for the body;
2) gluconeogenesis
3) preventing ketosis
If body doesn't get enough CHOs, the body will convert protein into glucose (a process called gluconeogenesis

3 parts of the body that absolutely require glucose to function

1) red blood cells;
2) brain;
3) central nervous system


production of new glucose molecules from protein sources. glu= glucose; neo= new; genesis= creation

what amount of CHO is required to prevent ketosis?

50-100 grams of CHOs per day

Can ketones be used as an energy source for the body? Under what circumstances and harmful to who?

Yes, under extreme circumstances such as starvation; would be very harmful to a baby/infant

what is the normal fasting blood glucose range?

70-100 mg/100ml blood (after 12-hour fast)


LOW blood sugar
hypo= low; gly= glucose; cemia= blood


high blood glucose
hyper= high; gly= glucose; cemia= blood

insulin: hormone or enzyme? symthesized where?

insulin is a hormone that is made by the pancreas, and is released in response to HIGH blood glucose levels

2 functions of insulin

1) moves glucose out of the blood stream into cells;
2) glucose storage system -- stores as glycogen in liver.
This returns glucose to normal levels if it gets too high.

Glucagon: hormone or enzyme? symthesized where?

glucagon is a hormone produced by the pancreas just as insulin is. Glucagon is released when blood glucose levels are LOW; promotes breakdown of glycogen (glucose stored in the liver) into glucose for release into the bloodstream (outcome: blood glucose i

Insulin and Glucagon: the blood glucose balancers!

INSULIN is released when glucose is HIGHER than normal; GLUCAGON is released when glucose levels are LOWER than normal

Diabetes Mellitus: Type I and Type II

Type I: total lack of insulin production; usually diagnosed in childhood.
Type II: inefficient use of insulin (insulin resistance); and/or insufficient insulin production.

pre-diabetes/DM diagnosis

Pre-diabetes diagnosed at >100-125 mg/100ml blood (fasting);
DM diagnosed when glucose >126mg/100 ml blood.

DM: major/acute symptoms
a.k.a. the 3 Poly's

1) polyuria: excessive urination
2) polydipsia: excessive thirst
3) polyphagia (polyFASH'a): excessive hunger

DM: condition the 3 Poly's lead to

Extreme fatigue and unexplained weight loss

Treatment for Type I DM

-Absolutely requires insulin therapy;
-Complex CHOs and protein source;
-Disclipined eating: 3 meals and 3 snacks
-types of snacks: cheese and crackers; granola bar + protein source; plenty of soluble fiber; eliminate fat and sugars; magnesium is good;

Treatment for Type II DM

-can often be treated without insulin therapy;
-Complex CHOs and protein source;
-Disclipined eating: 3 meals and 3 snacks
-types of snacks: cheese and crackers; granola bar + protein source; plenty of soluble fiber; eliminate fat and sugars; magnesium is

links to DM

Type I often has a genetic component but not required;
Type I generally diagnosed during child hood;
Type I generally NOT linked directly to obesity but can definitely make it worse or more difficult to manage and treat;
Type II is VERY MUCH related to ob

Insulin resistance (poor blood glucose regulation) and DM

Can progress into Type II DM;
diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome: if 3 or more symptoms exist:
1) impaired blood glucose regulation (high fasting blood glucose);
2) abdominal obesity;
3) HTM (high blood pressure);
4) high blood triglycerides (TGs);
5) low bl

What does a person with insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome have an increased chance of? How much higher?

A person with insulin resistance/Metabolic Syndrome is twice as likely to suffer a MI (myocardial infarction e.g. heart attack) and/or CVA (Cerebrovascular accident e.g. stroke)

What is the treatment goal for DM?

maintain NORMAL blood glucose levels -- goal of 70-100mg/100 ml blood

What are the longterm complications of chronic diabetes metillus?

cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, retinal damage

Treatment of Hypoglycemia

Rapid delivery of a source of 15 grams of easily absorbed sugar such as four lifesavers, 4 teaspoons of sugar, or 1/2 can of regular soda or juice, can be repeated up to three times. If symptoms persist, an ambulance should be called.
Cake, cookies, brown

Plant Starch: Amylose and Amylopectin

Amylose (straight chain of glucose molecules)
Amylopectin (branched chain of multiple glucose molecules

Animal Starch: Glycogen

Glycogen (storage form of glucose in liver and muscles). HIGHLY BRANCHED chain of multiple glucose molecules.
Liver glycogen: readily available storage of glucose;
Muscle glycogen: supplies glucose to muscles, esp. during high-intensity and endurance exer

dietary fiber, defined

indigestible polysaccharides, portion of ingested food (plants) that remains undigested as it enters the large intestine (colon)

insoluble fiber

does not dissolve in water
not metabolized by bacteria in the large intesting
hastens the transit of waste products through the large intesting;
provides bulk to the feces/stool easing elimination nad preventing constipation
wheat bran: best insoluble fib

insoluble fiber: food sources

flaxseeds (ground)
vegetables with skins on

soluble fiber

either dissolves or swells in water;
are metabolized (fermented) by bacteria in the large intestine;
inhibits absorption of cholesterol and bile acids (cholesterol-rich) from the small intestine; reduces blood cholesterol levels, especially when combined

soluble fiber: food sources

oats/oatmeal, barley, rice bran, legumes, root vegetables (e.g. carrots), some fruits (citrus, peeled apples, bananas), and psyllium seeds (plantain plant - used in commercial laxatives)

2002 DRI for dietary fiber

adults 19-50 years:
male 38g/day; female 25g/day
adults >50 years (due to lower kcal intakes):
male 30g/day; female 21g/day

Average U.S. dietary fiber intake

male: 17g/day
female: 13g/day


inflammmation of the diverticula (pouches protruding through the exterior wall of the colon) caused by acids produced by baceterial metabolism of food particles (nuts, seeds, hulls) inside the diverticula

Does fiber provide energy or kcals?

No. It is not digestible, does not get broken down in the bloodstream and therefore provides no energy or kcals.

Insoluble Fiber benefits (re-cap)

increases GI transit time/provides bulk to stool - prevents constipation/promotes satiety/prevents diverticulitis/possible role in prevention of colon cancer.

Soluble Fiber benefits (re-cap)

role in lowering blood cholesterol level and helping to maintain optimal blood glucose regulation (also delays gastric emptying)

best insoluble fiber source for increasing stool size/bulk:

wheat bran

Do most adults consume adequate fiber in their daily diet?

NO. Average consumption is only half the DRI

Problems with high-fiber diets:

1) need lots of fluids;
2) low mineral absorption;
3) adds excess bulk and displaces nutrient-rich kcal intake in children, elderly and malnourished;
4) possible formation of phytobezoars


fiber pellets which may obstruct GI tract

Honey: appropriate age and reason

According to the American Acedemy of Pediatrics, children under 1 should not be given honey because honey can harbor spores of Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism and can produce life-threatening toxins.

phytochemical compounds and food sources

allyl sulfides: garlic, onions, leeks;
Saponins: garlic, onions, licoric, legumes;
Carotenoids (e.g. lycopene): orange, red, yellow fruits and vegetables, and egg yolks;
Monoterpenes: oranges, lemons, grapefruit;
capsaicin: chili peppers;
Lignans: flaxsee