chapter 4 human nutrition

primarily in plant based foods, such as grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, & legumes

Where are carbohydrates primarily found?

in form of glucose

Most desirable form of energy for body is found where?


What fuel source does the brain and red blood rely on?


how we get glucose from plants

glucose-it is used as energy by plants

What is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature?

glucose units link together and are stored in a form of starch

How is glucose stored?


glucose, fructose, galactose (1 unit)


maltose, sucrose, lactose (2 units)


glucose + glucose

Sucrose (table sugar)

glucose + fructose

Lactose (milk sugar)

glucose + galactose


starch, glycagen, fiber (3+ units)

plants, such as wheat or rice, potatoes, peas & beans

Starch is the storage form in what?

in animals & humany body

Glycogen is the storage of glucose in...

liver & muscle cells (but only limited amounts in muscle cells) (major sources in liver)

Glycogen is stored in what?

important source of glycogen for blood

What is the importance of glycogen?

Dietary fiber

naturally found in foods

Functional fiber

added to food for beneficial effect (ex: oats bran added to bread)

Total fiber=

dietary fiber+functional fiber

Human lack..?

Human lack digestive enzyme to break down fiber

Soluable fiber

dissolves in water and is ferminated by intestinal bacteria (becomes gel like) such as viscous & fruits (citrus, apple), oats & barely, seeds, beans

Insoulable fiber

does not dissolve, has a laxative effects, foods such aswhole grains, wheat bran, veggies

helps prevent constipation & speed up bowl movement

Positive effects of insoluable fiber?


bran, endosperm, germ

Whole grain foods contain all 3 parts of kernel

brown rice, oat meal, whole-wheat bread


mineral (rich fibrous outer shell)


nutrient rich core


starchy portion

Refined grains

milling removes bran and germ

some B vitamins, iron, phytochemicals & dietary fiber

What are lost with refined grains?

Enriched grains

folic aced, Vitamin B1 B2 B3 & iron added to restore some lost nutrition (not as good as whole grains)

2 grams of fiber per 100 calories

How many grams of fiber per how many calories?


multiple forms of gluctose

Simple Carbohydrates

monosacchrides and diaccharides

Complex Carbohydrates


Dietary fiber helps...(4)

helps weight managment, protect against heart disease, prevent colon cancer, prevent and control diabetes

Health effects of dietary fiber (2)

helps prevent constipation & prevents diverticulasis

130 grams per day, low-moderate amounds of simple carbs, higher amounts of fiber & other complex carbs

Recommended intake of carbs?

14 grams of fiber per 1000 calories

Recommended intake of dietary fiber?

drink more fluids

How can you gradually increase fiber in your diet?

38-males 25-females

What are the fiber needs for males & females 19-51?

Carbohydrate digestion starts where?

the mouth

Mouth (1) step in carb digestion

salvisa contains amylase which starts to break down starch into smaller units and maltose

Stomach (2) step in carb digestion

acid and other juices deactivate salivary enzyme

Small Intestine (3) step in carb digestion

the arrival of food in the small intestine signals pancreas to release another enzyme, pancreatic amylase. This then breaks down the remaining starch units into maltose. The disaccrides are absorbed then maltase lactase and sucrase are housed in the micro

Blood (4) step in carb digestion

these enzymes break down the disaccrides into monosacchrides (glucose, fructose, galactose). the monosacchrises are now ready to be absorbed in the blood

Liver (5) step in carb digestion

fructose and galactose is converted to glucose. glucose is either stored or shipped back out into blood for delivery to your cells.

Large Intestine (6) step in carb digestion

fiber continues down to large intestine, where some of it is metabolized by bacteria in your colon. the majority of fiber is eliminated from your body in stool.

lactose maldigestion

the inability to digest lactose in foods due to low levels of the enzyme lactase

lactose intolerant

when maldigestion of lactose results in symptoms such as nausea, cramps, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea (1-3 percent of children)

gradually add dairy products, eat with a meal or snack, try reduced-lactose milk & dairy products such as yogurt or cheese

How can lactose intolerant people tolerate lactose containing foods & beverages?


chemical messengers to your body that iniate or direct specific actions


the hormone that directs the glucose from your blood into your cells. insuline is produced in and released from the pancreas


the process of converting excess glucose into glycogen in your liver & muscle


the breakdown of glycogen to release glucose


the creation of glucose from noncarbohdrate sources, mostly protein

the pancreas release insulin, which converts the glucose in glycogen (glycogenesis) in liver & muscle cells

what happens when blood glucose rises?

coverted to fat

what happens to the remaining excess glucose?

pancrea releases glucagon to raise blood glucose levels.

what happens when blood glucose drops?

without glucose, fat cant be broken down completely, which produces ketone bodies

what happens when you dont have an adequate amount of glucose?

ketone bodies

the by-products of the incomplete breakdown of fat


the condition of increase ketone bodies in the blood

balanced meals help to maintain blood glucose- complex carbs and mix meals breaks down slowly which allows gradual rise in blood sugar

whats the best way to maintain blood glucose control?

naturally occuring sugars

sugars such as fructose and lactose that are found naturally in fruit and dairy foods

added sugars

sugars that are added to processed foods & sweets

empty calories

calories that come with little nutrition ex: jelly beans

DRI: no more than 25% of daily calories

Recommended intake of sugar:

30 tsp

How much does Americans average of added sugars daily?

dental caries

the decay or erosion of your teeth

baby-bottle tooth decay

the decay of baby teeth in children due to continual exposure to fermentable sugary liquids

sugar substitutes

alternatives to table sugar that sweeten foods for fewer calories

calorie free sweeteners

sweet n low, equal, sunette, splenda, neotame




sweet n low



sugar alcohols (polyols)

sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol (gum) absorbs more slowly than sugar, not calorie free. can cause diarhea

Gycemic Response or Gyclemic Index (GI)

compared with standard: white bread, may be useful to people with diabetes.

white bread=

100 (GI)

diabetes mellitus

a medical condition whereby individual either doesnt have enough insulin or is resistant to the insulin available. often known as diabetes

insulin resistance

the inability of the cells to respond to insulin

type 1 diabetes

autoimmune disease, childhood, earlys years

type 2 diabetes

resistant to insulin, age 45 & older (95%)

impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes)

a condition whereby a fasting blood glucose level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as having diabetes mellitus

hyperglycemia symptoms:

feeling very tired, losing weight without trying, getting more infections than usual, losing feeling or getting tingling feeling in feet

causes of hyperglycemia:

too much food, too little insulin, illness, stress

risks factors of hyperglycemia

over age 45, race, obesity, diet, excessive alchohol, family history, smoking, inactive lifestyle

gestational diabetes

when females get pregnant (high blood glucose level)

chronic complications of diabetes millitus

increase heart disease, eye blurness, kidney (doing extra work to excrete it) nerves (poor circulation)

how to prevent diabete mellitus

blood glucose control is the key, have nutrition & lifestyle goals


blood glucose below 70 mg, usually people with diabetes, causes fainting comas

causes of hypoglycemia

too little food, too much insulin or diabete pills


hydrophobic; carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

3 types of lipids

triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterois

functions of lipids in the body:

energy storage, insulation, transports protein in blood, cell membane structure

functions of lipid in foods:

flaky texture to baked good, makes meat tender, provide flour and aromas, conrtibutes to satiety

fatty acids

chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with acid (-COOH) at one end

saturated fatty acids

solid at room temperature, all carbons bonded to hydrogen

unsaturated fatty acids

double bond between carbons, more liquid at room temperature, monosaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid

monusaturated fatty acid (mufa)

one double bond

polyunsaturated fatty acid (pufa)

more than one double bond

omega 6 fatty acid (linolec acid)

helps with structure of cell membrane, found in leafy greens and vegetable oils

omega 3 fatty acid (alpha linolenic acid)

heart healthy, flax seeds, oily fish, decreases risks of heart disease, regulates blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood gloats


more solid at room temperature


hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond


hydorgens are on the opposite sides of the double bond

trans fat

kept low in diet, raise LDL (bad cholestrol), lowers HDL (good cholestrol), must be listed on the food label


fatty acids+glucerol, most common lipids in foods and body, referred to as fats


2 fatty acids+glycerol+phosporus group, phosphorus-containing head is hydrophillic, fatty-acid tail is hydrophobic

what do phospholipids do?

helps cell membranes, helps fat travel lecithin, sereves as an emulsifier


compund that mixed water and oil together


four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen ex: cholestrol, bile, estrogen, testosteroine


cell memrane structure, precursor of compounds in body, not required in diet

lipid digestion & absorption

1) mouth: lingual lipase 2) stomache: gastrin lipase (lipid enzyme) 3) small intestine: bile acids, pancreatic lipase 4) absorption of michelle (compounds combine to send to liver)

Transport carriers that enable fat to travel through blood and lymph are called what?


to prevent the fat from seperating out in a sald dressing, a ______ is added


most of the fat in the mediterranearn diet come from what type of oil?


a diet low in_____fat and trans fat can reduce your risk of heart disease


triglycerides contain a______backbone with three fatty acids


fatty fish are rich in___and DHA, making it a heart healthy food choice


The american heart association recommends that you consumer at least how many servings of fish per week to obtain the necessary omega-3 fatty acids?


lipids are _____, meaning they do not dissolve in water.


phospholipids make up the bilayer in cell_______