Nutrition Final

Which statement is true about nutrients and food?
A) Each food usually supplies one type of nutrient.
B) Macronutrients are mostly found in solid foods.
C) Most foods contain mixtures of many nutrients.
D) Each nutrient is best absorbed if eaten alone.

C) Most foods contain mixtures of many nutrients.

Which of the following situations describes the obesogenic environment most accurately?
A) An environment that has high rates of obesity despite access to healthy foods and safe recreational activities
B) The environment in which many of us live that prom

B) The environment in which many of us live that promotes overconsumption of calories while at the same time discouraging physical activity

True or False: An epidemiologic study found that individuals who consume a high saturated fat diet were more likely to develop cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that consuming a high saturated fat diet causes cardiovascular d


How many grams of protein are in a product that supplies 160 kilocalories from protein?

160 kcal/4 kcal per gram =40 grams of protein

True or False: James Lind's hypothesis was that a diet lacking in vitamin C, a water soluble vitamin, caused scurvy.


An essential nutrient is a chemical that

Must be consumed in the diet because the body cannot make it in sufficient quantity.

During a scientific study, 50 subjects received vitamin E pills and 50 subjects received sugar pills. None of the subjects or investigators knew what was contained in the pills. This type of study is a

Double-blind study. Neither subjects nor investigators know who is receiving the placebo, and this limits potential

The most essential nutrient is


In maintaining proper acid-base balance, proteins act as


A high-quality protein does all of the following except

Regulate blood sugar levels

If nitrogen intake exceeds nitrogen excretion, the body is said to be in _____ nitrogen balance.


Based on the RDA for protein intake, an 80-kg adult would need approximately ________ grams of protein a day.

80 x 0.8= 64 grams of protein a day

_____ are protein catalysts for chemical reactions.


People with celiac disease cannot digest _____, a protein found in grains.


One of the sensory influences that determines a person's food preferences is the

Texture of food that a person likes.

Nutrients are defined as the chemicals

In foods that are needed for normal body functions

Which condition would increase a person's protein needs the most?

Severe Burn

Which of the following is not a role of proteins as additives in foods?


Peptide bond

Attraction between two amino acids


Alteration of a protein by unfolding the polypeptide chain


Abundant fibrous protein in connective tissue


Toxic product of protein degradation

True or False: Certain cancer (e.g., colon) has been linked to diets high in animal protein foods.


Carbohydrate and lipid are protein sparing because they

Can reduce the need to use amino acids for fuel.

What are some of the health benefits and risks associated with vegetarian diets?

� Develop agriculture
� No animal fertilizers, fish emulsions, blood or bone meal (dried animal bones and blood that is processed from the remains at slaughterhouses)
� Lower risk for cardiovascular disease, lower blood pressure and a longer life expectan

A person with a BMI of 21 falls into what risk range for mortality?

Normal Weight (18.5 to 25)

Excess fat in the ____ increases a person's risk of heart disease and diabetes.


Obesity results when:

There is a chronic positive energy balance

The BMI would not be a good assessment tool for determining _____ mortality risk.

A muscular football player's

The energy expended to digest, absorb, and metabolize the nutrients we consume

Thermic effect of food

The total mass of the body that isn't fat

Lean body mass

A calculation for assessing body weight for height. It is the ratio of weight to height squared


The relative amount of fat and lean body mass. The proportions of fat, muscle, bone, and other tissues in the body.

Body Composition

True or False: Humans tend to eat more in cold weather


___________ is a psychological desire to eat that is related to pleasant sensations associated with food.


_____________ is the physical sensation that includes the gnawing feeling in your stomach. It signals the physiological need to eat


____________ is the feeling of satisfaction and fullness that signals the end of a meal.


___________ is a feeling of satisfaction and fullness following eating that quells the desire for food.


Which of the following are causes Denise cited for patients experiencing fatigue?

Lack of sleep
Not eating enough carbohydrates

Which of the following is not a recommendation Denise gave about recovery nutrition?
A. Consume both carbohydrates and protein in a 2:1 ratio within 60 minutes of heavy exercise
B. Recovery nutrition is not necessary after a 50 minute Zumba class.
C. Drin

All of the Above

For the last two hours before exercise, Denise recommends consuming less_______ no fiber and no fat. This minimizes the time food spends in the stomach, as a full stomach can be uncomfortable while exercising.


Many athletes, especially those whose sport involves a lot of running, don't get enough ____________in their diet.


Colorful diets encourage _________ exposing you to more vitamins and phytochemicals.


Denise encourages a _________________ to nourish the body and prevent cycles of undereating followed by overeating.

Proactive eating plan

A ___________ can help Irritable Bowel Syndrome sufferers identify triggers.

Low FODMAP diet

Which situation below does not align with Denise's recommendations for supplementation? (In other words, which of the following is advice Denise would not give a client?)

A student has gotten into weight lifting and wants to build muscle but has a hard time eating after exercising. Denise recommends a shake with 50 grams of protein and 2 grams of carbohydrates within 1 hour of finishing a workout.

True or False: The low FODMAP diet is a plan intended for people to follow for the rest of their lives.


A serving of which food would be the best source of vitamin E?

Sunflower seeds

Excess vitamin A is most harmful to an embryo during the _____ months of pregnancy.

First and second

The primary function of vitamin K in the body is to:

Promote blood clotting

Beta-carotene is a precursor to __________

Vitamin A

A deficiency of _____ causes beriberi


Consuming excess amounts of folate may mask a(n) ________deficiency

Vitamin B12

Elevated homocysteine levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine levels in blood are influenced by all of the following nutrients except:

Vitamin C


Niacin deficiency disorder


Sign of riboflavin deficiency

Pernicious Anemia

Vitamin B12 deficiency disorder


Vitamin C deficiency disorder

Megadoses of niacin can

Cause itchy, tingling, flushed skin.

The first visible symptom of a vitamin C deficiency is:

Bleeding gums

True or False: By eating a variety of healthful foods, most healthy people can meet their needs for water-soluble vitamins.


Which vitamin is not naturally present in plant foods?

Vitamin B12

Which of the following persons has the lowest risk of dehydration?

A pregnant woman with fair skin


Can be a sign of kidney failure

Copy of Reducing ___ consumption would also reduce chloride intake


True or False: Vitamin D increases calcium absorption by the intestines


True or False: Only about 25 to 35 percent of the 300 milligrams of calcium in 1 cup of milk is bioavailable


True or False: A loss of body water equal to 20 percent of one's body weight can lead to kidney failure and death


Major functions of calcium

Nerve function
Blood clotting
Muscle contractions

Which substance interferes with the absorption of calcium?

Phytates in grains

Major dietary sources of potassium

Spinach and potatoes