Bacterial enzymes that cut the DNA of viruses are called
Which technique is used to separate DNA fragments by their size?
Suppose a segment of DNA contains five restriction sites for a particular restriction enzyme. How many fragments of DNA will remain after the enzyme is used to cut the DNA?
Some restriction enzymes leave behind "sticky ends," or tails of
What do the bands on a restriction map show?
sizes of DNA fragments
Which of the following are examples of clones?
identical twin sisters
DNA that contains genes from more than one organism is called
Scientists commonly use bacteria in genetic engineering because bacteria
can contain plasmids
Which statement is true of all genetically engineered organisms?
they have altered genomes
Plants that contain recombinant DNA are called
Which of the following statements about polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is true?
requires primers and nucleotides
The first step of PCR is to heat a DNA molecule to more than 90�C. What is the function of this step?
to separate the DNA strands
The main role of primers during the PCR process is to
provide a starting point for DNA synthesis.
During each PCR cycle, what happens to the number of copies of a DNA segment?
Scientists use PCR primarily to
Which phrase is true for a DNA fingerprint?
it is a type of restriction map
Which of the following is the basis for the molecular differences identified by DNA fingerprinting?
regions of noncoding DNA
The pattern of bands on a DNA fingerprint shows the sizes of DNA fragments related to the
number of repeat sequences
The chance that two people both have three repeat sequences at location A is 1 in 500. The chance that two people have four repeat sequences at location B is 1 in 800. What is the probability that two people have the same number of repeats in both locatio
1 in 40,000
DNA fingerprinting can be used to
prove a family relationship
The two main goals of the Human Genome Project are to sequence all of the DNA base pairs of the human chromosomes and to
identify all of the genes within the genome.
Gene sequencing defines the order of
DNA nucleotides in genes or genomes.
The study of the proteins that result from an organism's genome is called
Which of the following terms is used to describe the use of computer databases to analyze and organize biological data?
DNA microarrays can be used to compare different cell types by showing
patterns of gene expression
The main purpose of genetic screening is to
assess the risk of having or carrying a genetic disorder.
Which of the following genetic disorders can be identified through genetic screening?
How are viruses used in gene therapy?
to carry new genes into cells
The goal of gene therapy is to replace defective or missing genes in order to
treat some genetic disorders
Which factor has so far kept gene therapy from becoming an effective treatment for genetic disorders?
the difficulty of getting new genes to become part of a cell's DNA
these cut DNA molecules when identify specific nucleotide sequences
an electrical current that is used to separate a mixture of fragments from each other
show the length of DNA fragments between restriction sites ina strand of DNA
A technique that produces millions or even billions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in just a few hours
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
short segment of DNA that acts as a starting point for a new strand
representtion of parts of an individual's DNA that can be used to identify a person at a molecular level
genetically identical copy of a gene or an organism
the changing of an organism's DNA to give the organism new traits
DNA that contains genes from more than one organism
closed loops of DNA that are separate from the bacterial chromosome and that replicate on their own within the cell.
organism has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome
disrupting the function of a gene
The study of genomes, which can include the sequencing of all of an organisms DNA.
determining the order of nucleotides in genes or genomes
what are the two main goals of the Human Genome Project
- to map and sequence all of the DNA base pairs of human chromosomes
- identify all of the genes within the sequence
use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data
Tools that allow scientists to study many genes, and their expression at once.
The study and comparison of all the proteins that result from an organisms genome.
the process of testing DNA to determine a person's risk of having or passing on a genetic disorder
the replacement of a defective or missing gene, or the addition of a new gene, into a person's genome to treat a disease
Who determined the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
What are some examples that have allowed advances in genetics research
chemicals, computers and bacteria
what are artificial nucleotides used for
what are chemical mutagens used for
change in DNA sequences
bacteria enzymes do what
cut and copy DNA
enzymes can also be known as
the sequence of nucleotides that is identified and cut by restriction enzymes is called