Diffusion of water across a membrane through the lipid bilayer
Having greater concentration of solute inside than the solution outside. Cell shrinks.
Having a lower concentration of solute inside than the solution outside. Cell Expands.
Having an equal solute concentration inside and outside the cell. Ideal (perfect) conditions. Cell remains normal.
Storage vesicle for water, food, wastes other substances. 1 large vacuole in plants, many small vacuoles in animals.
Controls all cell activities and protein production. Contains the DNA and nucleolus.
Cell liquid in which chemical reactions occur. Holds and cushions the organelles.
Converts glucose into ATP (energy a cell can use) in the process of cellular respiration.
A double-layered lipid membrane that surrounds the cell. Regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Rigid external layer of a plant cell (cellulose), bacteria (glycoproteins), or fungi (chitin) that is outside the cell membrane.
Converts light energy into glucose in the process of photosynthesis. Contains chlorophyll giving plants their green color.
Passageways where compounds are manufactured, processed, and transported.
Collects, modifies, and packages proteins and lipids made by the E.R.
Unicellular. Lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Has ribosomes.
Unicellular or multicellular. Contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Has ribosomes.
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Equilibrium / Homeostasis
A state of balance in which there is little or no total change.
Contains digestive enzymes to breakdown food and wastes. Involved in apoptosis.
Synthesizes ribosomes. Found in the nucleus.
Small package of nutrients, proteins, wastes, or water created by the golgi.
The basic unit of all living things. The smallest unit of life.
A complete living thing
Synthesizes proteins. Mostly found on the rough E.R. but can also be in the cytoplasm.
A collection of similar cells that perform a specific job.
Made of a single cell
Basic microscope that uses light and mirrors to magnify small objects.
Cells that do only one special job.
Cell splitting into two new cells.
Made of more than one cell.
Surrounds the nucleolus and DNA. Controls what enters and leaves the nucleus.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Synthesizes lipids for use in the cell membrane and other parts of the cell.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Contains most of the cells ribosomes which synthesize proteins.
Little organs" that make up the cell working together for the survival and function of the cell.
Made of 1 cell.
Uses accelerated electrons to illuminate (light up) very small objects.
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
Inventor of the first microscopes. 1600's.
Gave cells their name (cells). 1600's.
Botatnist (studied plants) who said all plants are made of cells.. Worked on cell theory with Dr. Schwann. 1800's.
Physiologist (studied animal cells) who said all animals are made of cells. Worked on cell theory with Dr. Schleiden. 1800's.
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization in organisms.
3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells.
Small hairs on a cells surface that wave back and forth allowing the cell to move.
A whip-like structure on a cell that 'whips' back and forth allowing the cell to move (e.g. sperm cell).
Movement of particles from low to high concentration across the membrane that requires energy (ATP).
Movement of particles from high to low concentration across the membrane (no energy needed).
Passive transport through the membrane with the use of protein channels. Some channels are specific while others are not.
Helps align chromosomes during cell division (animal cells only).
Small, thin proteins that help support and give structure to a cell. A cells cytoskeleton.
Prefix meaning cell.
Cell membrane composed of phospholipids, proteins (transport), cholesterol, and aquaporins..
No energy needed to allow material passage.
Attracted to water.
Repelled by water.
Change / Convert
1 large vacuole.
Cell wall (cellulose)
Many small vacuoles
Cell membrane only
Makes up the cell membrane. Composed of a phosphate 'head' (hydrophilic) and 2 fatty acid 'tails' (hydrophobic).
Allows some materials (not all) to pass through.
The ability to decide which particles enter and leave a cell.
External / Exo-
Outside (e.g. exoskeleton of an insect)
Internal / Endo-
Inside (e.g. endoskeleton of humans)
Stiff sterol lipid in the cell membrane that provides strength and rigidity.
The amount of dissolved solute in a solvent. Usually expressed as a percent.
Solute + solvent
Particles dissolved in a liquid (solvent)
A liquid particles (solute) are dissolved in
How well a substance can pass through something.
Taking things in from the surrounding environment by creating a vesicle.
Getting rid of wastes into the surrounding environment by expelling a vesicle.
The solution outside a cell.
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
Light Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)
set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin cycle
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
cellular respiration equation
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
the innermost compartment of the mitochondrion and the site of the Krebs cycle reactions
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
- 2 Pyruvates enter the mitochondrion
- releases 2 ATP, 6NADH, and 2 FADH2 for each glucose
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
(Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy
Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
lactic acid fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product
Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ and releasing carbon dioxide.