Nutrition Exam 1

What is the difference between an essential and non essential nutrient?

Essential: comes from external source (can't be made by other nutrients)
Non essential: body make from nutrients in food

What's the purpose of the Daily Reference Intakes (DRI's)?

prevent toxicity, to get enough but not too much, aim for recommended daily allowance

Name the six classes of nutrients:

carbs (fuel source)
lipid (fat)
protein (make up bones, muscles and other tissues, energy)
vitamins (vital to life, metabolic)
minerals (no calories, growth/development)
water (solvent, lubricant, temp/chemical processes)

Macro vs micro nutrients

macro: carbs, lipids, protein
micro, vitamins, minerals, water

Main function of carbohydrate

source of fuel for the central nervous system and muscles during exercise

Four types of fatty acids?

saturated fats, trans fats, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats (essential)

Two categories of vitamins?

fat soluble and water soluble

How are minerals categorized?

major: >100mg
Trace: <100mg

What are functional foods?

substances in addition to the vitamins and minerals in food that provide significant health benefits:
phytochemicals: plants
zoochemicals: animals

How many calories per gram are in each macronutrient?

carbs= 4kcal/g
protein= 4kcal/g
fat= 9 kcal/g

15g carb=
3g protein=
1g fat=


Which chronic diseases does obesity increase the chance of acquiring?

high total cholesterol/high triglycerides (coronary heart disease), type two diabetes, cancers, hypertension, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis

How does the DSHEA classify nutritional supplements? What role does the FDA have in regulating supplements?

classifies vitamins, minerals, amino acids and herbal remedies as "foods"
prevents FDA from regulating them as heavily as additives for drugs


study of diseases in populations

Case-control study

comparison of people who do and those that do not have a particular condition ex. people who have diabetes are overweight

Cohort study

researchers analyze data from a selected group of people at intervals over a certain period of time
ex. Framingham heart study has followed 5,000 participants over the last 60 years and found those with high cholesterol more likely to have a heart attack

Double blind study

has an experimental group and a control group and subjects are randomly assigned so that neither researchers nor subjects know which group they're in


fake, when a participant who wasn't receiving treatment but thought they were and reported feeling better

Name some of the "red flags" when it comes to identifying questionable nutrition advice

quick and easy fixes, natural, satisfaction guaranteed, one product does it all, time tested, paranoid accusations, personal testimonials, meaningless medical jargon

When assessing your disease potential, what is the relationship between your relatives and your risk?

risk increases if the relative is closer: highest risk if you have two first degree relatives with a specific disease, higher risk if disease developed in relative before age 50

What are the three components of a healthy diet?

appropriate calorie intake, appropriate eating schedule, balanced diet

What are the rules for combining balance and moderation?

eating from all five food groups and choosing the more nutrient dense option, understanding the recommended portions

Define nutrient density and empty calories

nutrient density: small number of calories and lots of vitamins and minerals
empty calories: sugars/fats, calories without nutrients that aren't fulfilling

What are three tools the government provides to help guide healthy eating?

Dietary guidelines, food labels, my healthy plate

What nutrients are required to be listed on the food label?

fats, cholesterol, sodium, fibers, sugars, carbs, protein, vitamin A and C, calcium, iron

In what order are ingredients listed on food packaging?

descending order by weight

What are nutrient claims? Health claims?

nutrient: low fat, reduced fat, low sugar
health, heart healthy, reduces cholesterol

List the five myplate food groups

vegetables, grains, fruits, protein, dairy

Best choices within each food group:

grain (6-9): whole grains, corn, beans, peas
fruits (3-5): fresh and frozen
veggies(3+): fresh and frozen, bright colors
dairy(3-4): skim or 1%, cottage cheese
protein(5-7oz): lean meat/poultry, fish, nuts, beans, seeds, tofu

Two most significant improvements when eating fast food?

avoid fries and regular pop

Tips for eating at a restaurant?

eat half, start with salad, avoid fatty meats/fried foods/heavy creams, no high calorie condiments, no cheese

Define hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia

hyper: high blood glucose levels
hypo: low blood glucose levels

What hormones are responsible for lowering and raising blood glucose levels?

insulin lowers blood glucose
glucagon raises blood glucose

Different characteristics of type one and type two diabetes

type one: genetic, diagnosed under 30, insulin injections required
type two: diagnosed over age 30, often linked with obesity, 90-95% cases, treatment includes diet therapy, medication and exercise

Potential long term complications of diabetes?

damages arteries and nerves, increases chance of clogged arteries, poor circulation, costly

What is the glycemic index?

blood glucose responds to given food instead of standard
based on premise that carb based foods digesting into glucose quickly is not healthy (temporary high levels of glucose which causes pancreas to release large amounts of insulin)

Identify the various types of foods that are considered carbohydrates and which are complex vs simple.

grains and cereals (complex)
pasta, potatoes, rice, beans (complex)
sweets, regular pop (simple)
fruit and fruit juices (simple)
fiber (lettuce) (complex)

Name the monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

Which organ do the monosaccharides travel to after they enter the blood? Which monosaccharides are all other monosaccharides converted into?

liver, glucose

Name the disaccharides

maltose (glucose and glucose)
sucrose (glucose and fructose)
lactose (galactose and glucose)

What are amylose and amylopectin?

amylose: straight chain polymer
amylopectin: highly branched polymer (used as a food thickener)

Difference between glycogen and starch?

Glycogen: hundreds of glucose units in long, highly branched chains, storage form of CHO, (stored in liver and muscles)
Starch: thousands of glucose molecules in either occasionally branched chains or unbranched chains

Structural difference between starch and fiber?

fiber: beta bonds
starch: alpha bonds

Two categories of fiber?

insoluble and soluble
fiber promotes softer stool, prevents obesity, delays gastric emptying, slows glucose absorption, reduces blood cholesterol, reduces hemmorhoids and diverticula

How much fiber do males/females need daily?

males 38g
females 25g

Inact fiber vs isolated fiber?

intact: found in foods naturally high in fiber
isolated: fibers derived from other starchy foods and added to non fiber containing foods

Explain the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine

1. pancreatic amylase is released which digests further starch fragments into disaccharides
2. disaccharides then broken down into monosaccharide's by three enzymes released by intestinal cells
3. monosaccarides are absorbed through intestinal cell and in

Three possible destinations of glucose after entering the liver?

blood stream, liver (storage) conversion to fat

Functions of carbs?

supply energy, protein sparing, prevents ketosis, sweetener in foods

For a healthy diet, what is the recommendation for % total calories from carbohydrate?


What are the guidelines for added sugar?

males: 38g
females: 25g

What are problems with high sugar diets?

low nutrient density, extra calories add up, high glycemic index

Which foods are better tolerated in lactose intolerant people?

diary with fat, cheese, yogurt, use of lact-aide

What are the two general categories of sugar substitutes?

non caloric (saccarin, asparame, splenda, stevia)
sugar alcohols (isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol

What function do lipids serve in the body?

provide energy, store energy, insulate/protect, transport fat soluble vitamins

What is another name for lipids?


What are the sources of each fat?

saturated: butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, cream, fatty meats, oils
monosaturated: olive oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, almonds, peanuts, nuts, avocados
polyunsaturated: corn oil, cotton seed oil, soybean oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil

What's the structural difference between a saturated fatty acid, monosatturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid?

saturated: omega end, alpha end, single carbon bond
monosaturated: omega end, alpha end, one double bond
poly: omega end alpha end two double bonds

What is hydrogenation?

process used to solidify an oil, generally improves food product taste and texture
(it lengthens shelf life)

Which two polyunsaturated fats are essential?

omega 3 and omega 6

What are the possible health benefits of omega 3?

essential because body can only make double bonds after the ninth carbon from the omega end, both omegas have a double bond before (2-4 tablespoons a day)

What are the body's two main emulsifiers involved in the digestion of fat?

bile acides and lecithins

Explain how fat is digested once entering the small intestine.

CCK stimulates the release of bile and lecithin to help emulsify fat, CCK hormone stimulates pancreas to release pancreatic lipase (enzyme), fat is broken down to monoglycerides and free fatty acids and glycerol

Explain enterohepatic circulation

bile stored in gall bladder, small intestine emulsifies fats and it goes to colon or blood then liver bile (from cholesterol) goes back to the gall bladder

Describe the transport of digested fat

chylomicron?lympth?subclavian vein?general circulation?chylomicron remnant?liver

Describe the transportation of synthesized fat starting with VLDL and ending with scavenger pathway.

VLDL deposits fat and become VLDL remnant to low density protein, receptor pathway for cholesterol uptake, scavenger pathway for cholesterol uptake

Which pathway contributes to plaque formation and clogged arteries?


What are the characteristics and functions of cholesterol in the body?

essential component of cell membrane, forms important hormones like estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D, precursor to bile acids

Why are antioxidants potentially helpful in preventing plaque build up in arteries?

prevents plaque build up by preventing oxidation of LDL

Why is it beneficial to have a high HDL level?

removes cholesterol from the blood stream, HDL may also block oxidation of LDL, premenopausal women have higher HDL likely due to hgiher estrogen levels

What are the daily recommendations for fat intake expressed as a % of total calories?


What are the daily recommendations for saturated and trans fat?

20-30 grams per day

Define myocardial infarction and stroke

myocardial infarction is a heart attack where blood flow to the heart is blocked
stroke is when blood flow to the brain is blocked

What should overall cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels be?

LDL: 130 or lower
HDL: 40 or higher (women 50 or higher)
overall 200 or lower

What diet measures can be taken to reduce LDL levels?

introduce dietary saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol, increase MUFA and PUFA to recommended amounts, increase dietary fiber, lower glycemic load foods, caloric intake to maintain healthy weight

What impact does exercise have on LDL and HDL levels?

retards plaque build up, increases vascularity of heart, increases HDL, improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, aids in weight loss and lowering blood pressure

What effect does trans fat have on cholesterol levels?

raises bad cholesterol LDL, lowers good cholesterol HDL,