What is the difference between an essential and non essential nutrient?
Essential: comes from external source (can't be made by other nutrients)
Non essential: body make from nutrients in food
What's the purpose of the Daily Reference Intakes (DRI's)?
prevent toxicity, to get enough but not too much, aim for recommended daily allowance
Name the six classes of nutrients:
carbs (fuel source)
protein (make up bones, muscles and other tissues, energy)
vitamins (vital to life, metabolic)
minerals (no calories, growth/development)
water (solvent, lubricant, temp/chemical processes)
Macro vs micro nutrients
macro: carbs, lipids, protein
micro, vitamins, minerals, water
Main function of carbohydrate
source of fuel for the central nervous system and muscles during exercise
Four types of fatty acids?
saturated fats, trans fats, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats (essential)
Two categories of vitamins?
fat soluble and water soluble
How are minerals categorized?
What are functional foods?
substances in addition to the vitamins and minerals in food that provide significant health benefits:
How many calories per gram are in each macronutrient?
fat= 9 kcal/g
Which chronic diseases does obesity increase the chance of acquiring?
high total cholesterol/high triglycerides (coronary heart disease), type two diabetes, cancers, hypertension, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis
How does the DSHEA classify nutritional supplements? What role does the FDA have in regulating supplements?
classifies vitamins, minerals, amino acids and herbal remedies as "foods"
prevents FDA from regulating them as heavily as additives for drugs
study of diseases in populations
comparison of people who do and those that do not have a particular condition ex. people who have diabetes are overweight
researchers analyze data from a selected group of people at intervals over a certain period of time
ex. Framingham heart study has followed 5,000 participants over the last 60 years and found those with high cholesterol more likely to have a heart attack
Double blind study
has an experimental group and a control group and subjects are randomly assigned so that neither researchers nor subjects know which group they're in
fake, when a participant who wasn't receiving treatment but thought they were and reported feeling better
Name some of the "red flags" when it comes to identifying questionable nutrition advice
quick and easy fixes, natural, satisfaction guaranteed, one product does it all, time tested, paranoid accusations, personal testimonials, meaningless medical jargon
When assessing your disease potential, what is the relationship between your relatives and your risk?
risk increases if the relative is closer: highest risk if you have two first degree relatives with a specific disease, higher risk if disease developed in relative before age 50
What are the three components of a healthy diet?
appropriate calorie intake, appropriate eating schedule, balanced diet
What are the rules for combining balance and moderation?
eating from all five food groups and choosing the more nutrient dense option, understanding the recommended portions
Define nutrient density and empty calories
nutrient density: small number of calories and lots of vitamins and minerals
empty calories: sugars/fats, calories without nutrients that aren't fulfilling
What are three tools the government provides to help guide healthy eating?
Dietary guidelines, food labels, my healthy plate
What nutrients are required to be listed on the food label?
fats, cholesterol, sodium, fibers, sugars, carbs, protein, vitamin A and C, calcium, iron
In what order are ingredients listed on food packaging?
descending order by weight
What are nutrient claims? Health claims?
nutrient: low fat, reduced fat, low sugar
health, heart healthy, reduces cholesterol
List the five myplate food groups
vegetables, grains, fruits, protein, dairy
Best choices within each food group:
grain (6-9): whole grains, corn, beans, peas
fruits (3-5): fresh and frozen
veggies(3+): fresh and frozen, bright colors
dairy(3-4): skim or 1%, cottage cheese
protein(5-7oz): lean meat/poultry, fish, nuts, beans, seeds, tofu
Two most significant improvements when eating fast food?
avoid fries and regular pop
Tips for eating at a restaurant?
eat half, start with salad, avoid fatty meats/fried foods/heavy creams, no high calorie condiments, no cheese
Define hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
hyper: high blood glucose levels
hypo: low blood glucose levels
What hormones are responsible for lowering and raising blood glucose levels?
insulin lowers blood glucose
glucagon raises blood glucose
Different characteristics of type one and type two diabetes
type one: genetic, diagnosed under 30, insulin injections required
type two: diagnosed over age 30, often linked with obesity, 90-95% cases, treatment includes diet therapy, medication and exercise
Potential long term complications of diabetes?
damages arteries and nerves, increases chance of clogged arteries, poor circulation, costly
What is the glycemic index?
blood glucose responds to given food instead of standard
based on premise that carb based foods digesting into glucose quickly is not healthy (temporary high levels of glucose which causes pancreas to release large amounts of insulin)
Identify the various types of foods that are considered carbohydrates and which are complex vs simple.
grains and cereals (complex)
pasta, potatoes, rice, beans (complex)
sweets, regular pop (simple)
fruit and fruit juices (simple)
fiber (lettuce) (complex)
Name the monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
Which organ do the monosaccharides travel to after they enter the blood? Which monosaccharides are all other monosaccharides converted into?
Name the disaccharides
maltose (glucose and glucose)
sucrose (glucose and fructose)
lactose (galactose and glucose)
What are amylose and amylopectin?
amylose: straight chain polymer
amylopectin: highly branched polymer (used as a food thickener)
Difference between glycogen and starch?
Glycogen: hundreds of glucose units in long, highly branched chains, storage form of CHO, (stored in liver and muscles)
Starch: thousands of glucose molecules in either occasionally branched chains or unbranched chains
Structural difference between starch and fiber?
fiber: beta bonds
starch: alpha bonds
Two categories of fiber?
insoluble and soluble
fiber promotes softer stool, prevents obesity, delays gastric emptying, slows glucose absorption, reduces blood cholesterol, reduces hemmorhoids and diverticula
How much fiber do males/females need daily?
Inact fiber vs isolated fiber?
intact: found in foods naturally high in fiber
isolated: fibers derived from other starchy foods and added to non fiber containing foods
Explain the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine
1. pancreatic amylase is released which digests further starch fragments into disaccharides
2. disaccharides then broken down into monosaccharide's by three enzymes released by intestinal cells
3. monosaccarides are absorbed through intestinal cell and in
Three possible destinations of glucose after entering the liver?
blood stream, liver (storage) conversion to fat
Functions of carbs?
supply energy, protein sparing, prevents ketosis, sweetener in foods
For a healthy diet, what is the recommendation for % total calories from carbohydrate?
What are the guidelines for added sugar?
What are problems with high sugar diets?
low nutrient density, extra calories add up, high glycemic index
Which foods are better tolerated in lactose intolerant people?
diary with fat, cheese, yogurt, use of lact-aide
What are the two general categories of sugar substitutes?
non caloric (saccarin, asparame, splenda, stevia)
sugar alcohols (isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol
What function do lipids serve in the body?
provide energy, store energy, insulate/protect, transport fat soluble vitamins
What is another name for lipids?
What are the sources of each fat?
saturated: butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, cream, fatty meats, oils
monosaturated: olive oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, almonds, peanuts, nuts, avocados
polyunsaturated: corn oil, cotton seed oil, soybean oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil
What's the structural difference between a saturated fatty acid, monosatturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid?
saturated: omega end, alpha end, single carbon bond
monosaturated: omega end, alpha end, one double bond
poly: omega end alpha end two double bonds
What is hydrogenation?
process used to solidify an oil, generally improves food product taste and texture
(it lengthens shelf life)
Which two polyunsaturated fats are essential?
omega 3 and omega 6
What are the possible health benefits of omega 3?
essential because body can only make double bonds after the ninth carbon from the omega end, both omegas have a double bond before (2-4 tablespoons a day)
What are the body's two main emulsifiers involved in the digestion of fat?
bile acides and lecithins
Explain how fat is digested once entering the small intestine.
CCK stimulates the release of bile and lecithin to help emulsify fat, CCK hormone stimulates pancreas to release pancreatic lipase (enzyme), fat is broken down to monoglycerides and free fatty acids and glycerol
Explain enterohepatic circulation
bile stored in gall bladder, small intestine emulsifies fats and it goes to colon or blood then liver bile (from cholesterol) goes back to the gall bladder
Describe the transport of digested fat
chylomicron?lympth?subclavian vein?general circulation?chylomicron remnant?liver
Describe the transportation of synthesized fat starting with VLDL and ending with scavenger pathway.
VLDL deposits fat and become VLDL remnant to low density protein, receptor pathway for cholesterol uptake, scavenger pathway for cholesterol uptake
Which pathway contributes to plaque formation and clogged arteries?
What are the characteristics and functions of cholesterol in the body?
essential component of cell membrane, forms important hormones like estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D, precursor to bile acids
Why are antioxidants potentially helpful in preventing plaque build up in arteries?
prevents plaque build up by preventing oxidation of LDL
Why is it beneficial to have a high HDL level?
removes cholesterol from the blood stream, HDL may also block oxidation of LDL, premenopausal women have higher HDL likely due to hgiher estrogen levels
What are the daily recommendations for fat intake expressed as a % of total calories?
What are the daily recommendations for saturated and trans fat?
20-30 grams per day
Define myocardial infarction and stroke
myocardial infarction is a heart attack where blood flow to the heart is blocked
stroke is when blood flow to the brain is blocked
What should overall cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels be?
LDL: 130 or lower
HDL: 40 or higher (women 50 or higher)
overall 200 or lower
What diet measures can be taken to reduce LDL levels?
introduce dietary saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol, increase MUFA and PUFA to recommended amounts, increase dietary fiber, lower glycemic load foods, caloric intake to maintain healthy weight
What impact does exercise have on LDL and HDL levels?
retards plaque build up, increases vascularity of heart, increases HDL, improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, aids in weight loss and lowering blood pressure
What effect does trans fat have on cholesterol levels?
raises bad cholesterol LDL, lowers good cholesterol HDL,