Chapter 4: Histology

what are the basic tissue types?

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

lines body surfaces, forms internal and external lining of organs and glands (i.e. intestines and blood vessel), composed of one or more layer of cells, little to no ECM, avascular and polar

epithelial tissue

what are the functions of epithelial tissue?

protection, regulation of materials, produce secretions (glands), sensory reception

cell shapes of epithelial tissue

squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional

layers of epithelial tissue

simple, stratified, pseudostratified

accessories to epithelial tissue

villi, microvilli, goblet cells, keratinitization

lack ducts, secrete products (hormones) into bloodstream and interstitial fluid

endocrine glands

chemical messengers that influence cell activities elsewhere in the body


maintain contact with epithelial surface by means of a duct, secretes materials onto the skin or a surface lining an internal passageway

exocrine gland

supports, protects, and binds organs and body structures togethers

connective tissue

what are the basic components of CT

cell, protein fibers, and ground substance

what are the four types of loose connective tissue

areolar, adipose, reticular

what are the four types of dense connective tissue

dense regular, dense irregular, elastic

protein fibers of CT

collagen (strong and stretch resistant), elastic (flexible and resilient), and reticular (interwoven framework)

ground substance of CT

is a nonliving material produced by CT cells composed of proteins, carbs, and water. Can be viscous (blood), semisolid (cartilage), or solid (bone)

what are the functions of connective tissue

protection, support, binding, storage, and transport, immune protection

responds to stimulation causing them to shorten, produce voluntary and involuntary movement

muscle tissue

what are three muscle tissues

cardiac, skeletal, and smooth

consists of neurons and glial cells that support, protect, and provide a framework of neurons

nervous tissue

detect stimuli, process info, transmit electrical impulses


groups of similar calls and extracelluar products that carry out a common function


embryonic cells that develop into connective tissue


fibroblasts, less collagen, viscous ground substance, binds and packs around organs (vessels and subcutaneous)

areolar connective tissue

adipocytes, protects, stores fat, insulates (subcutaneous, kidney and other organs)

adipose connective tissue

what are the two sub categories of CT Proper

loose and dense

what are the two sub categories of Supporting Connective Tissue

bone and cartilage

what are the two sub categories of Fluid Connective Tissue

blood and lymph

meshwork of reticular fibers, forms stroma of lymph (spleen, liver, lymph, bone marrow)

reticular connective tissue

densely packed collagen that are parallel to direction of stress, provides strength and flexibility in a single direction (tendons and ligaments)

dense regular connective tissue

densely packed collagen thats interwoven an irregularly clumped and project in all directions, provides tensile strength in all directions (dermis)

dense irregular tissue

elastic and collagen fibers arranged irregularly, provides framework and support (walls or large arteries)

elastic connective tissue

mature cartilage cells


smalls spaces within the EMC that contain chondrocytes


the covering that creates the outer layer of cartilage


what are the three types of cartilage

hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic

glossy matrix, chondrocytes in lacune, has perichondrium, smooth surface for joints, model for bone growth, supports soft tissue

hyaline cartilage

parallel collagen fibers in matrix, chondrocytes in lacuna, no perichondrium, resists compression, absorbs shock in some joints


abundance of elastic fibers in matrix and that form around lacunae, has perichondrium, maintains shape and structure while permitting extensive flexibility

elastic cartilage

what are the two types of bone

spongy and compact

calcified matrix arranged in osteons

compact bone

lacks the organization of compact bone; contains macroscopic spaces; bone arrangement in a meshwork pattern

spongy bone

cells are long and cylindrical, striated, parallel, unbranched, peripheral multinucleate, voluntary

skeletal muscle

cells are short, striated, one or two centrally located nuclei, intercalated discs, involuntary

cardia muscle

cells are fusiform and short, non striated, one centrally located nuclei, involuntary

smooth muscle