A&P Ch1

inferior

below, in reference to a particular structure, wth the body in the anatomical position

pleural cavities

subdivisions of the thoracic cavity that contain the lungs

cytology

the study of cells

antebrachium

the forearm

pericardial cavity

the space between the parietal pericardium and the epicardium (visceral pericardium) that covers the outer surface of the heart

ventral

pertaining to the anterior surface

anatomical position

an anatomical reference position; the body viewed from the anterior surface with the palms facing forward

abdominopelvic cavity

the portion of the ventral body cavity that contains abdominal and pelvic subdivisions; also contains the peritoneal cavity

serous membrane

a squamous epithelium and the underlying loose connective tissue; the lining of the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities; serosa

muscle

a contractile organ composed of muscle tissue, blood vessels, nerves, connective tissues, and lymphatic vessels

sagittal plane

a sectional plane that divides the body into left and right portions

peritoneum

the serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity

peritoneal cavity

extends throughout abdominal cavity and into superior portion of pelvic cavity, lined by peritoneum

midsagittal plane

a plane passing through the midline of the body that divides it into left and right halves

brachial

pertaining to the arm

digestion

the chemical breakdown of ingested materials into simple molecules that can be absorbed by the cells of the digestive tract

pleura

the serous membrane that lines the pleural cavities

embryology

the study of embryonic development, focusing on the first 2 months after fertilization

acinus/acini

a histological term referring to a blind pocket, pouch, or sac

thorax

the chest

anatomy

the study of the structure of the body

brachium

the arm

posterior

also known as dorsal, toward the back

homeostasis

the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment

supine

lying face up, with palms facing anteriorly

excretion

a removal from body fluids

prone

lying face down with the palms facing the floor

diaphragm

any muscular partition; the respiratory muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity

physiology

the study of function; deals with the ways organisms perform vital activities

negative feedback

a corrective mechanism that opposes or negates a variation from normal limits
ex: sweating when you're hot

mediastinum

the central tissue mass that divides the thoracic cavity into 2 pleural cavities; includes aorta and other vessels, esophagus, trachea, thymus, pericardial cavity; in males, the area of connective tissue attaching a testis to the epidiymis, proximal porti

superior

above, in reference to a portion of the body in the anatomical position

buffer system

interacting compounds that prevent increases or decreases in the pH of body fluids; includes the carbonic acid, bicarbonate buffer system, the phosphate buffer system, and the protein buffer system

coelom

the ventral body cavity, lined by serous membrane and subdivided during fetal development into the pleural, pericardial, and abdominopelvic cavities

parasagittal

a section or plane that parallels the midsagittal plane that doesn't pass along the midline

metabolism

the sum of all biochemical processes under way within the human body at any moment; includes anabolism and catabolism

sign

the visible, objective evidence of the presence of a disease

autoregulation/intrinsic regulation

changes in activity that maintain homeostasis in direct response to changes in the local environment; doesn't require neural or endocrine control

abdomen

region of trunk bounded by the diaphragm and pelvis

embryo

developmental stage beginning at fertilization and ending at the start of the third developmental month

frontal plane

a sectional plane that divides the body into an anterior portion and a posterior portion; also called coronal plane

organs

combinations of tissues that perform complex functions

dopamine

an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system

polyunsaturated fats

fatty acids containing carbon atoms that are linked by double bonds

differentiation

the gradual appearance of characteristic cellular specializations during development as the result of gene activation or repression

pericardium

the fibrous sac that surrounds the heart; its inner, serous lining is continuous with the epicardium

symptom

an abnormality of function as a result of disease; subjective experience of patient

pelvic cavity

the inferior subdivision of the abdominopelvic cavity; encloses urinary bladder, sigmod colon, rectum, reproductive organs

radiodensity

the relative resistance to the passage of x-rays

viscera

organs in the ventral body cavity

axilla

armpit

blood pressure

force exerted against vessel walls by blood in vessels, due to push exerted by cardiac contraction & elasticity of the vessel walls; usually measured along one of muscular arteries, with systolic pressure measured during ventricular systole and diastolic

positive feedback

a mechanism that increases a deviation from normal limits after an initial stimulus

gross anatomy

the study of the structural features of the body without aid of a microscope

hematoma

a tumor of swelling filled with blood

histology

the study of tissues

anterior

on or near the front of body, also known as ventral

proximal

closer to body

distal

farther from body

viscera

internal organs within the subdivision so fthe ventral body cavity

visceral

pertaining to the viscera or their outer coverings

umbilical region

naval area

epigastric region

superior to umbilical region

hypogastric region

inferior to umbilical region

transverse

divides horizontally between inferior and superior portions

thoracic cavity

contains lungs, heart, pleural cavities

pericardial cavity

chamber that surrounds the heart, consists of heart, pericardium, visceral pericardium, parietal pericardium

retroperitoneal

kidneys and pancreas lie between the peritoneal lining and the muscular wall of the abdominal cavity, (retro = behind); behind or outside the periotenal cavity

infaperitoneal

visceral structures which extend inferior to the peritoneal cavity (like urinary bladder and distal portion of ureters and large intestine)

superficial anatomy

involves locating structures on or near the body surface

levels of organization

chemical (atoms)
cellular
tissue level
organ level
organ system level
organism

tissue

a group of cells working together to perform one or more specific functions

organ

consist of two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions

organ system

a group of organs interacting to perform a particular function

microscopic anatomy

deals with structures that can't be seen without magnification

surface anatomy

gross anatomy
study of the general form and superficial markings

regional anatomy

gross anatomy
focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body

system anatomy

gross anatomy
study of the structure of organ systems

developmental anatomy

gross anatomy
describes changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity

clinical anatomy

gross anatomy
a number of sub-specialties important in clinical practice (pathological anatomy, radiographic anatomy, surgical anatomy)

cell physiology

study of the functions of cells

organ physiology

study of the physiology of specific organs

systemic physiology

includes all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems

pathological physiology

study of the effects of diseases on organ functions or system functions

receptor

sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change

control center

or integration center, which receives and processes information supplied by receptor and sends out commands

effector

a cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center. activity opposes or enhances stimulus

dynamic equilibrium

physiological systems are continually adapting and adjusting to changing conditions to stay balanced

abdominopelvic quadrants

RLQ, RUQ, LLQ, LUQ