Chapter 6 Tissues and Membranes

Groups of cells that are similar to each other in structure and function.

Tissues

The study of tissues

Histology

Forms large, continuous sheets; helps form the skin and covers the entire outer surface of the body. They also line the most of the inner cavities such as the mouth, respiratory tract, and reproduction tract. Doesn't have blood supply of its own; avascula

Epithelial Tissue
(Epithelium)

Located in the walls of blood vessels (capillaries) , Alveoli (air sacs in lungs), and kidneys. Their function permits the exchange of nutrients and wastes, and allows diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide and filtration of water and electrolytes .

Simple Squamous Tissue

Located in the lining of kidney tubules and various glands (thyroid, pancreas, salivary glands). Their function is absorption of water and electrolytes, and secretion of enzymes and hormones.

Simple Cuboidal Tissue

Located in the digestive tract, and the functions are: protection, absorption, and secretion of digestive juice; often contains goblet cells (mucus).

Simple Columnar Tissue

Located in the lining of the respiratory tract and the fallopian tubes; the function is protection, and secretion; cleans respiratory passages; sweeps egg toward uterus.

Pseudostratified Columnar Tissue

Located in the outer layer of the skin and the lining of the mouth, esophagus, anus, and vagina. The function of it is that it protects the body from invading microorganisms; withstands friction.

Stratified Squamous Tissue

Located in the urinary bladder and its function is that it permits expansion of an organ.

Transitional Tissue

A very thin material that anchors the epithelium to the underlying structure.

Basement Membrane

Thin, flat cells like fish scales.

Squamous Epithelium

Cells that are cubelike and look like dice.

Cuboidal Epithelium

Tall, narrow cells, and look like calumns.

Columnar Epithelium

One layer of cells.

Simple Epithelium

Two or more layers of cells.

Stratified Epithelium

Because they're so thin, they're concerned primarily with the movement, or transport, of various substances across the membranes from one body compartment to another.

Simple Epithelia

A single layer of squamous cells with an underlying basement membrane. Because this tissue is so thin, it's found where substances move by rapid diffusion or filtration.

Simple Squamous Epithelium

A single layer of cells resting on a basement membrane. This epithelial layer is most often found in glands and in the kidney tubules, where it functions in the transport and secretion of various substances.

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

These tall, tightly packed cells line the entire length of the digestive tract and play a major role in the absorption of the products of digestion. Lubricating mucus is produced by goblet cells.

Simple Columnar Epithelium

Because the cells are so irregularly shaped, they appear to be multilayered. Their function is similar to the function of simple columnar cells: they facilitate absorption and secretion.

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

Multilayered and therefore stronger than simple epithelia. They perform a protective function and are found in tissue exposed to everyday wear and tear, such as the mouth, esophagus, and skin.

Stratified Epithelia

Is found primarily in organs that need to stretch such as the urinary bladder. It's called transitional because the cells slide past one another when the tissue is stretched. The cells appear stratified when the urinary bladder is full.

Transitional Epithelium

The function of this epithelium is secretion.

Glandular

Made up of one or more cells that secrete a particular substance.

Gland

These have ducts, or tiny tubes, into which these secretions are released before reaching body surfaces or body cavities. These secretions include mucus, sweat, saliva, and digestive enzymes. The ducts carry the secretions outside the body.

Exocrine Glands

These secrete hormones, such as insulin. They don't have ducts and are therefore called ductless glands, and because they're ductless, the hormones are secreted directly into the blood. The blood then carries the hormones to their sites of action.

Endocrine Glands

The most abundant of the four tissue types and is widely distributed throughout the body. It's found in blood, under the skin, in bone, and around many organs. It binds together, the parts of the body. Other functions include support, protection, fat stor

Connective Tissue

It makes various types of connective tissue so different from one another. It's a material located outside the cell. It fills the spaces between the cells. The cell makes it and secretes it into the intercellular spaces. The hardness of it varies from one

Intracellular Matrix

Found in the matrix of most connective tissue, and the types include collage, elastin, and reticular.

Fibers

Aveolar, adipose, and reticular are all types of what?

Loose Connective Tissue

Located beneath the skin and most epithelial layers; between muscles, and it binds together, protects, cushions; "tissue glue".

Areolar Connective Tissue

Located beneath the skin, and around the kidneys and heart, and behind the eyeballs, and the functions of it is that it cushions, insulates, and stores fat.

Adipose Connective Tissue

Located in the Lymphoid tissue such as lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow, and it forms internal framework of lymphoid organs.

Reticular Connective Tissue

Located in the tendons, ligaments, capsules, and fascia skin (dermis), and it binds structures together.

Dense Fibrous Connective

Located at the ends of long bones and joints, connects ribs to sternum, rings in trachea of respiratory tract, nose, and fetal skeleton. The function of it is that it supports, protects, and provides framework.

Hyaline Cartilage

Located in the intervertebral discs, pads the knee joint, and pad between the pubic bones, and functions are that it cushions and protects.

Fibrocartelage

Located in the external ear and part of the larynx, and it functions are that it supports and provides framework.

Elastic Cartilage

Cordlike structures composed of dense fibrous connective tissue that attach muscles to bones.

Tendons

Dense fibrous connective tissues that cross joints and attach bones to each other. Because they contain more elastic fibers than tendons do, they stretch more easily.

Ligaments

Dense fiber also forms tough _____ around certain organs such as the kidney and liver.

Capsules

Dense fibrous connective tissue forms bands, or sheets, of tissue.

Fascia

Formed by chondrocytes.

Cartilage

These secrete a protein-containing intercellular matrix that is firm, smooth, and flexible.

Chondrocytes

Most cartilage is covered by this, and it's a layer of connective tissue that carries blood vessels to the cartilage. The blood vessels supply oxygen and nutrients to the cartilage.

Perichondrium

Hyaline, elastic, and fibro. are all types of what?

Cartilage

Another name for bone tissue.

Osseous Tissue

Another name for bone cells.

Osteocytes

Two types of connective tissue that have a watery intercellular matrix; they form a "liquid" connective tissue.

Blood and Lymph

Blood consists of blood cells surrounded by a fluid matrix.

Plasma

Makes up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, and it also consists of two types of cells: neurons and neuroglia.

Nervous Tissue

Also known as glia, are cells that support and take care of the neurons.

Neuroglia

Also known as glia, are cells that support and take care of the neurons.

Neuroglia

Composed of cells that shorten, or contract. In doing so, they cause movement of a body part.

Muscle Tissue

Thin sheets of tissue that cover surfaces, line body cavities, and surround organs. They're classified as epithelial or connective tissue.

Membranes

These include the cutaneous membrane (skin), the mucous membrane, and the serous membranes.

Epithelial membranes

The skin

Cutaneous Membrane

Line all body cavities that open to the exterior of the body. They include the digestive, urinary, reproductive, and respiratory tracts.

Mucous Membranes

Line the ventral body cavities, which are not open to the exterior of the body.

Serous Membrane

The part of the membrane that lines the walls of the cavity (like wallpaper).

Parietal Layer

The part of the membrane that covers the outside of an organ.

Visceral Layer

These serous membranes are found in the thoracic cavity.

Pleura

The space between the pleural layers.

Pleural Cavity

This is found in the thoracic cavity and partially surrounds the heart.

Pericardium

The space between the pericardial membranes.

Pericardial Cavity

Serous membrane located in the abdominal cavity.

Peritoneum

An abnormal joining of tissues by fibrous scar tissue. These may bind or constrict organs, causing decreased flexibility and obstruction, especially in the abdomen.

Adhesions

Abnormal growth that can affect all types of tissues and membranes. Tumors are named according to the type of tissue involved. A carcinoma involves epithelial tissue. A sarcoma involves connective tissue.

Cancer

For unknown reasons, collagen can be destroyed, causing damage to the connective tissue of the body. Because collagen is a main compartment of connective tissue, the effects of this are widespread. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus ery

Collagen disease

Death (necrosis) of the soft tissues of a body part such as the toes, fingers, or intestines. This occurs when the blood supply to the tissue is cut off. Diabetic patients experience this of the toes when their arteries become clogged with fat deposits. I

Gangrene

A tumor may be malignant or benign. Examples of benign connective tissue include adenoma (glandular tissue); osteoma (bone); chondroma (cartilage); fibroma (fibroblasts); lipoma (fat tissue); and polyps (adenomas commonly found in vascular area such as th

Neoplasm