Endocrine Conditions

Acromegaly

Mechanism: Hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) during adulthood
Description: Chronic Metabolic disorder characterized by gradual enlargement or elongation of facial bones and extremities

Addison Disease

Mechanism: Hyposecretion of adrenal cortical hormones (adrenal cortical insufficiency)
Description: Caused by tuberculosis, autoimmunity, or other factors, this life-threatening condition is characterized by weakness, anorexia, weight loss, nausea, irrita

Aldosteronism

Mechanism: Hypersecretion of aldosterone
Description: Often caused by adrenal hyperplasia, this condition is characterized by sodium retention and potassium loss´┐Żproducing Conn syndrome; severe muscle weakness, hypertension (high blood pressure), kidney d

Cretinism

Mechanism: Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone during early development
Description: Congenital condition characterized by dwarfism, retarded mental development, facial puffiness, dry skin, umbillcal hernia, lack of muscle coordination

Cushing Disease

Mechanism: Hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Description: Caused by adenoma of the anterior pituitary, increased ACTH cuases hypersecretion of adrenal cortical hormones, producing Cushing Syndrome

Cushing Syndrome

Mechanism: Hypersecretion (or injection) of glucocorticoids
Description: Metabolic disorder characterized by fat deposits on upper back, striated pad of fat on chest and abdomen, rounded "moon" face, muscular atrophy, edema, hypokalemiz (low blood potassi

Diabetes Insipidus

Mechanism: Hyposecretion of (or insensitivity to) antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Description: Metabolic disorder characterized by extreme polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst) because of a decrease in the kidney's retention of water

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

Mechanism: Temporary decrease in blood levels of insulin during pregnancy
Description: Carbohydrate-metabolism disorder occurring in some pregnant women; characterized by polydipsia, polyuria, overeating, weight loss, fatigue, irritability

Gigantism

Mechanism: Hypersecretion of GH before age 25 years
Description: Condition characterized by extreme skeletal size caused by excess protein anabolism during skeletal development

Graves Disease

Mechanism: Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Description: Inherited, possibly autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos (protruding eyes)

Hashimoto Disease

Mechanism: Autoimmune damage to thyroid causing hyposecretion of thyroid hormone
Description: Enlargement of thyroid (goiter) is sometimes accompanied by hypothyroidism, typically occurring between ages 30 and 50 years; 20 times more common in females tha

Hyperparathyroidism

Mechanism: Hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Description: Condition characterized by increased reabsorption of calcium from bone tissue and kidneys and increased absorption by the gastrointestinal tract; produces hypercalcemia, resulting in conf

Hyperthyroidism (adult)

Mechanism: Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Description: Condition characterized by nervousness, tremor, weight loss, excessive hunger, fatigue, heat intolerance, heart arrhythmis, and diarrheal; caused by a general acceleration of body function

Hypothyroidism (adult)

Mechanism: Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone
Description: Condition characterized by sluggishness, weight gain, skin dryness, constipation, arthritis, and general slowing of body function; may lead to myxedema, coma, or death is untreated

Insulin Shock

Mechanism: Hypersecretion (of overdose injection) of insulin, decreased food intake, excessive exercise
Description: Hypoglycemic (low blood glucose) shock characterized by nervousness, sweating and chills, irritability, hunger, and pallor´┐Żprogressing to

Myxedema

Mechanism: Extreme hyposecretion of thyroid hormone during
Description: Severe form of adult hypothyroidism characterized by edema of the face and extremities; often progressing to coma and death

Osteoporosis

Mechanism: Hyposecretion of estrogen in postmenopausal women
Description: Bone disorder characterized by loss of minerals and collagen from bone matrix, producing holes or porosities that weaken the skeleton

Pituitary Dwarfism

Mechanism: Hyposecretion of GH before age 25 years
Description: Condition characterized by reduced skeletal size caused by decreased protein anabolism during skeletal development

Simple Goiter

Mechanism: Lack of iodine in diet
Description: Enlargement of thyroid tissue results from the inability of the thyroid to make thyroid hormone because of a lack of iodine; a positive feedback situation develops in which low thyroid hormone levels trigger

Sterility

Mechanism: Hyposecretion of sex hormones
Description: Loss of reproductive function

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Mechanism: Hyposecretion of insulin
Description: Inherited condition with sudden childhood onset characterized by polydipsia, polyuria, overeating, weight loss, fatigue, and irritability, resulting from the inability of cells to secure and metabolize carb

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Mechanism: Insensitivity of target cells to insulin
Description: Carbohydrate-metabolism disorder with slow adulthood onset though to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and characterized by polydipsia, polyuria, overeating, we

Winter (seasonal) Depression

Mechanism: Hypersecretion of (or hypersensitivity to) melatonin
Description: Abnormal emotional state characterized by sadness and melancholy resulting from exaggerated melatonin effects; melatonin levels are inhitbited by sunlight so they increase when d