Anatomy Chapter 1

anatomy

the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another

physiology

the study of how the body and its parts work or function

atoms

tiny building blocks of matter; combined on the chemical level

cells

smallest units of all living things; on the cellular level

tissue

consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function; on the tissue level

organ

a structure composed of two or more tissue types that perform a specific function for the body

organ system

a group of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose

organism

11 organ systems that make up the living body/ highest level of structural organization

integumentary system

the external covering of the body or the skin
waterproofs, cushions, protects, regulates body temp, etc

skeletal system

consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints
supports the body and provides framework/ used to cause movement

muscular system

formed by the skeletal system

nervous system

body's fast-acting control system (brain, spinal cord, and sensory receptors)

endocrine system

controls body activities slower than the nervous system; produce chemical molecules (hormones) and release them into blood
controls growth, reproduction, and food use

cardiovascular system

includes heart and blood vessels; uses blood as a transportation fluid to carry oxygen, nutrients, hormones, etc to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made

lymphatic system

complements the cardiovascular system; return fluid leaked from the blood back to the blood vessels so that blood can continuously circulate throughout body

respiratory system

keeps the body constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; includes nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, and trachea, bronchi, and lungs

digestive system

tube running through the body from mouth to anus; break down food and deliver the products to the blood for dispersal to the body cells

urinary system

removes the nitrogen-containing waste from the blood and flushes them from the body in urine
AKA excretory system

reproductive system

to produce offspring; different in male and female

movement

includes all activities promoted by the muscular system

responsiveness

AKA irritability; the ability to sense changes in the environment and then react to them

digestion

the process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into the blood

metabolism

broad term that refers to all chemical reactions that occur in the body

excretion

process of removing excreta/ wastes from the body

reproduction

production of offspring; can occur on a cellular or organismal level

growth

an increase in size/ usually an increase in number of cells

survival needs

oxygen, nutrients, water, and appropriate temp/ atmospheric pressure

homeostasis

the body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even thought the outside world is continuously changing

receptor

come type of sensor that monitors and responds to changes in environment in process of homeostatic control mechanisms

control center

determines the level at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the info it receives from receptor, and then determines the appropriate response or course of action

effector

provides the means for the control center's response

urinary system

regulates the acid-base balance of the blood

movement

the passing of blood through the body

integumentary

is involved in maintaining the boundaries of the body so that the inside remains distinct from the outside

metabolism

the sum of the chemical reactions that occur in the body.

Left hypochondriac region

spleen is found here

trachea

The mediastinum houses this

homeostasis

The ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable internal condition under changing external conditions

endocrine system

thymus is part of this

dorsal

this body cavity is split into two subdivisions: the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity.

transverse plain

would separate the cranial cavity from the thoracic cavity

distal

When standing in the correct anatomical position, the feet are ________ to the knees.

superior

toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above

inferior

away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure of the body; below

ventral

AKA ANTERIOR
toward or at the front of the body; in front of

dorsal

POSTERIOR
toward or at the backside of the body; behind

medial

toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

lateral

away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of

proximal

close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

distal

farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

superficial

EXTERNAL
toward or at the body surface

deep

INTERNAL
away from the body surface; more internal

anatomical position

standard position; body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward

abdominal

anterior body trunk inferior to ribs

acromial

point of shoulder

antebrachial

forearm

antecubical

anterior surface of elbow

umbilical

naval/ belly button

plantar

region/ sole of the foot/ interior body surface

section

cut

plane

imaginary line

sagittal section

a cut along the lengthwise, or longitudinal, plane of the body, dividing the body into right and left parts

median

MIDSAGITTAL SECTION
cut is down the median plane of the body and the right and left parts are of equal size

frontal section

cut along a lengthwise plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts AKA CORONAL SECTION

transverse section

a cut along a horizontal plane, dividing body or organ into superior and inferior parts AKA CROSS SECTION

dorsal cavity

made up of cranial and spinal cavities

ventral cavity

thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity make up this

mediastinum

separates the lungs into left and right cavities

cross section

A transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior segments.

anatomical position

the position in which the body is erect, facing front with feet parallel and arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward. This position is used as a reference point to describe body parts and positions.

lateral

The cheeks are ______ to the tongue.

abdominal organs and cavity

When the body is subject to physical trauma, such as in an automobile accident, which organs/ cavities are the most vulnerable to injury (homeostatic imbalance)?

armpit

axillary region

metabolism

a broad term that refers to all the chemical reactions that occur in the body. ______ includes breaking down complex substances into simpler ones, and using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP molecules, which are used for powering cellular activities.

Olecranal

posterior surface of the elbow

endocrine system

The _______ is the body's slow-acting control system and acts by means of hormones

nervous system

the body's fast-acting control system and acts by means of electrical and chemical signals.

hypochondriac

The right and left _______ regions flank the epigastric region and contain the lower ribs. They are just above the lumbar regions.

medial

a direction toward or at the midline of the body. For example, the umbilical region is located anteriorly and ______ly

thoracic

The ________ body cavity: is the superior cavity in the ventral cavity.

proximal

being close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

femoral

thigh

calcaneal

heel of foot

sural

the posterior (BACK) surface of lower leg; the calf

plantar

region/ sole of foot

sacral

area between hips