Anatomy Terms

Developmental Anatomy

studying structural changes from conception to adulthood

Embryology

the study of changes from conception to the end of the eighth week of development

Cytology

the study of cellular structure

Histology

studies the anatomical structure of tissues

Gross Anatomy

the study of structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope; can be approached from either a systemic or a regional perspective.

Systemic Anatomy

studying one body system at a time

Regional Anatomy

studying all structures contained in a specific region

Surface Anatomy

the study of the external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures

Anatomical Imaging

creating pictures of internal body structures

Physiology

the scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things

Atoms

the basic components of the chemical level

Molecules

atoms are joined together to form...?

Cell Level

basic unit of organisms

Organelles

The cell level is composed of small structures called...?

Tissue Level

composed of a group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them.
Four basic types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.

Organ Level

composed of two or more tissue types that perform one or more common function(s).

Organ System Level

composed of a group of organs that have a common function

Organism Level

in humans, a complex of organ systems are all mutually dependent on one another.

Metabolism

consists of all the chemical reactions taking place in an organism

Responsiveness

snese changes in its external or internal enviroment and adjust to the changes

Growth

due to cells increasing in size or number

development

the changes an organism undergoes through time, beginning with fertilization and ending with death

Differentiation

when a cell changes from general to specific

Morphogenesis

body changes that occur at puberty

Reproduction

involves formation of new cells or new organisms

Homeostasis

the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body

Variables

Body conditions that change over time

Set Point

The normal value for a body condition

Normal Range

body conditionsare not constant but vary within a ... ?

Negative Feedback

any deviation from the set pint is made smaller or is resisted.

Effector

deviation from the set point; can change the value of a variable

Control Center

establishes the set point; detects deviation

Receptor

Monitors the value of a variable; analyzes deviation

Positive Feedback

a deviation from set point causes the system to make the deviation greater

anatomic position

a person is standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper limbs hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.

supine

laying down on the back with face upward

prone

laying down on the stomach with face downward

superior

up

inferior

down

anterior

front

posterior

back

cephalic

synonymous with superior

caudal

synonymous with inferior

ventral surface

belly

dorsal surface

back

proximal

the end of a structure neaarer to the poin of origin

distal

the end of a structure farther from the point of origin

medial

a structure closer to the midline of the body

lateral

a structure farther from the midline of the body

superficial

structures near the body surface

deep

structures that are in the interior of the body

arm

the body from the shoulder to the elbow

forarm

the body from the elbow to the wrist

thigh

the body from the hip to the knee

leg

the body from the knee to the ankle

sagittal

the vertical plane that divides the body into right and left portions

median

the vertical plane that divides the body int equal right and left halves

transverse/horizontal

the plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions

frontal/coronal

the vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

thoracic cavity

surrounded by the rib cage, and separated from the abdominal cavity by the muscular diaphragm.

mediastinum

median portion (thoracic cavity)

lungs

found on either side of the median portion

abdominal cavity

contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys.

pelvic cavity

contains the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs.

abdominopelvic cavity

the abdominal and pelvic cavities

serous membranes

found covering the organs of the trunk cavities and linint the trunk cavities

visceral serous membrane

covers the organ

perietal serous membrane

lines the organ

serous fluid

reduces friction

pericardial cavity

surrounds the heart

pleural cavity

surrounds each lung

peritoneal cavity

found within the abdominopelvic cavity

mesenteries

anchor the organs to the body wall and provide a pathway for nerves and blood vessels to reach the orgnas; composed of two layers of peritoneum fused together

retroperitoneal

organs that are directly attached to the body wall and covered only with a perietal peritoneum