A & P Exam 2 ( histology)

endocrine glands

internally secreting glands, ductless

exocrine glands

externally secreting, released into body cavities

_______________ and ________________ cells are unicellular glands.

mucous; goblet

Mucous and goblet glands secrete ________________, that turns into mucous when it is dissolved in water.


Merocrine glands

Secrete fluid products by exocytosis; salivary & sweat glands, pancreas

holocrine glands

accumulate their products within them until they rupture

Main characteristics of connective tissue

-All connective tissue is developed from embryonic mesenchyme
-There are varying degrees of vascularity
- Extracellular matrix - largely non-living, separating cells, gives CT weight bearing capacity

4 types of tissue

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

epithelial tissue

A body tissue that covers the surfaces of the body, inside and out

connective tissue

A body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts

muscle tissue

A body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move.

nervous tissue

A body tissue that carries electrical messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body.

functions of epithelium

protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, sensory reception

Where is epithelial tissue found?

body coverings, body linings, glandular tissue

How to name epithelial tissue

Simple- one layer thick + shape
Stratified- several layers thick + shape

endothelium ( what and where)

lymph vessels lining in blood vessels and heart
ex. simple squamous epithelium

mesothelium (what and where)

serous membranes in ventral body cavity, pleural cavity, etc.

Location of simple columnar epithelium

Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to rectum), gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.

Function of microvilli (brush border)

to increase cell surface area and the efficiency of absorption

transitional epithelium location

lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra

Major role for stratified epithelium

protection- multiple layers

glands (tissue type)



exocrine is externally secreting
endocrine is internally secreting

Types of unicellular glands and where found

mucous cells and goblet cells are found in the epithelial linings of digestive and respiratory tracts


secreted by glands, sugar-protein product of mucus and goblet cells

merocrine glands

Secrete fluid products by exocytosis; salivary & sweat glands, pancreas

Holocrine glands

accumulate their products within them until they rupture

Function of connective tissue

binding and support, protection, insulation, transportation

categories of connective tissue

proper, cartilage, bone, blood, areolar, adipose, brown fat, reticular, dense regular, dense irregular, elastic, membranes

components of connective tissue

cells, fibers, ground substance

vascularity of connective tissue


adipose tissue: cell type, degree vascularity

adipocytes, richly vascular

reticular connective tissue location

lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow

dense regular CT cell type, fibers, vascularity, # of cells

fibroblasts, collagen fibers, poor vascularity, few cells

dense irregular CT location

dermis of skin

Elastic CT location

walls of large arteries and ligaments

location of hyaline cartilage

Most abundant cartilage in body; at ends of long bones, anterior ends of ribs, nose, parts of larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchial tubes, embryonic and fetal skeleton.

location of fibrocartilage

intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joint

location of elastic cartilage

external ear, epiglottis

blood cells

atypical liquid, RBC's and WBC's/ platelets, cells surrounded by fluid/plasma

cutaneous membrane

The skin; composed of epidermal and dermal layers

mucous membrane

wet membrane, mucosae, lines body cavities that are open to exterior ( ex. digestive, respiratory, and urogenital tracts)

serous membrane

closed body cavity, serosae, simple squamous epithelium called mesothelium, parietal(lines body cavity walls internally), visceral (covers internal organs)


study of tissues

3 main types of tissue

dermal, ground, vascular

Epithelial tissue tends to be used as a __________________________.


_____________ are also made of epithelial tissue


5 specialized features/functions of epithelial tissue

polarity, specialized contact, supported by CT, avascular but not innervated, regenerates

In order to name epithelial tissue you consider the number of ______________ and the __________.

layers of cells; shape

2 special types of simple squamous epithelia

endothelium, mesothelium

Where do you find simple cuboidal tissue?

line kidney tubules, ovaries, and ducts

Where do you find simple columnar tissue?

line uterus, stomach, intestines

The brush border of the digestive tract contains _______________


Where do you find pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelia?

upper respiratory tract

Stratified epithelial tissue is used for _______________

protection of underlying tissues subject to abrasion

New cells in the stratified epithelial tissue regenerate from the ___________ layer


Where do you find transitional epithelium

ureters, bladder, urethra

Glands are _________ tissue