Anatomy Lab 5: Cranial Osteology

What is the function of spongey bone?

Reduces weight
Lighter bone requires less energy to move

What are the two types of skeletons?

Axial and appendicular

What does the axial skeleton consist of?

Skull, vertebrae, and ribs

What makes a bone cranial?

It contributes surface area to the cranial cavity

What are the 8 cranial bones?

Frontal bone
2 parietal bones
2 temporal bones
Ethmoid bone (cribriform plate)
Sphenoid bone
Occipital bone

What bone holds the pituitary gland?

Sphenoid bone

What bone is inferior to parietal ear holes?

Temporal Bone

What bones are posterior to the frontal bone?

Left and right parietal bone.

Share is the ethmoid bone located?

In the nasal cavity, but the cribriform plate adds to surface area of cranial cavity so it is a cranial bone

What are the 4 main sutures we worry about?

Sagittal
Squamous
Lambdoid
Coronal

Which suture is like an upside down v?

Lambdoid suture

Where is the coronal suture?

Where you put your tiara

Name the 12 cranial nerves in order

olfactory,
optic,
oculomotor,
trochlear,
trigeminal, (ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular divs.)
abducens,
facial,
vestibulocochlear,
glossopharyngeal,
vagus,
accessory,
hypoglossal

What is the mnemonic for cranial nerve names?

On
Occasion
Our
Trusty
Truck
Acts
Funny,
Very
Good
Vehicle
Any
How

What is the mnemonic for cranial nerve functions?

Some
Say
Marry
Money
But
My
Brother
Says
Big
Brains
Matter
More
(S=sensory, M=motor, B=both)

What is the function of the olfactory nerve?

Smell (carry sensory info)

What is the function of the optic nerve?

Vision (carries sensory info)

What is the function of the oculomotor nerve?

Most eyeball movements (parasympathetic pupil constriction)

What is the function of the trochlear nerve?

Movement of eyeball down and out

What are the three branches of the trigeminal nerve? What's is the function?

V1= ophthalmic
V2= maxillary
V3= mandibular divs.
All carry senses from head, V3 only movement of mandible

What is the function of the abducens nerve?

Movement of eyeball laterally

What is the function of the facial nerve?

facial expression, taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue
(Parasympathetic control of tearing and salivary glands)

What is the function of the vestibulocochlear nerve?

hearing and balance

What is the function of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

Taste on back 1/3 of tongue, pharynx sensation and swallowing
(Parasympathetic control of saliva production by parotid gland)

What is the function of the vagus nerve?

Swallowing, movement (speech) and sensation of larynx
(MAJOR Parasympathetic control of heart, lungs, and most of GI)

What is the function of the accessory nerve?

Movement of head and shoulders, helps with swallowing
(Trapezoid and sternocleidomastoid muscle)

What is the function of the hypoglossal nerve?

movement of tongue (for speech, food movement, and swallowing)

What is a foramen?

A natural hole in the skull

What nerve goes through the cribriform plate?

Olfactory nerve

What nerve goes through the optic canal?

The optic nerve

What nerves go through the superior orbital fissure?

Oculomotor
Trochlear
Abducens
V2 of the trigeminal nerve (ophthalmic)

What do the nerves that run through the superior orbital fissure have in common?

They are eyeball moving nerves

What runs through the foramen rotundum?

Maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve (V2)

What runs through the foramen ovale?

mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve

What runs through the Foramen spinosum?

No cranial nerve, the Middle Meningeal artery

What runs through the foramen lacerum?

The internal carotid artery

What runs through the internal acoustic meatus?

facial and vestibulocochlear nerve

What runs through the jugular foramen?

internal jugular vein
Glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory

What runs through the hypoglossal canal?

The hypoglossal nerve

What runs through the foramen magnum?

Vertebral arteries and spinal cord

How are the cranial bones formed?

Soft tissue membrane that ossify (turns to bone) and grows together

What are the sorts spots on a baby's head?

Gaps between the cranial bones, made of collagen membrane
Called fontanels

What are the 4 fontanels?

anterior, posterior, mastoid, sphenoid

What are the 6 auditory ossicles?

2 malleus
2 incus
2 stapes
(One in each ear)

What are the 14 facial bones?

2 maxillae,
2 palatine,
2 zygomatic,
2 lacrimal,
2 nasal,
2 inferior nasal conchae,
1 vomer,
1 mandible

What are sinuses?

cavities in the skull

What is the function of sinuses?

reduce the weight of the skull

What are the 4 major sinuses?

Frontal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Maxillary

What is the hyoid bone?

only bone that does not articulate with another bone