A&P: CH 3 Study Guide

cytoplasm

cellular material located outside the nucleus yet inside the plasma membrane.

organelles

specialized cellular compartments within the cytosol of the cell

hydrophobic

phospholipid tails are _________, which makes the plasma membrane impermeable to water.

microvilli

tiny finger-like projections of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area.

tight junctions

membrane connections that prevent the leaking of fluid between cells.

free in the cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum

two locations for ribosomes in a cell are: _____ ___ ____ _______ and attached to the _______ _______ ______.

osmosis

passive process that involves movement of water through aqauporins.

intracellular fluid

nucleoplasm and cytosol make up:

active process

movement of substance through the cell membrane against their concentration gradient.

thymine, guanine

they nucleotides of DNA join in a complementary way in which adenine pairs with _____ while cytosine pairs with ____.

cytokinesis

in cell division, the term that refers to the division of the cytoplasm.

interphase

period of the cell cycle when the cell grows and performs its metabolic activities.

mitosis

purpose is to produce two genetically identical cells.

gene

DNA segment that carries information for building one protein or polypeptide chain.

translation

the step during protein synthesis, of assembling proteins by decoding the information in messenger RNA.

simple squamous epithelium

epithelial tissue consisting of one layer of cells flattened like fish scales.

skeletal muscle

type of muscle tissue than can be controlled voluntarily.

connective tissue

type of tissue consisting of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix.

exocrine glands

possess ducts that transport secretions onto epithelial surfaces.

simple columnar

type of epithelial tissue found lining organs of the digestive system such as the small intestines.

neuron

cell type found in nervous tissue.

dense fibrous tissue

tendons and ligaments are common to this type of connective tissue.

hyaline cartiliage

type of connective tissue found in a fetal skeleton, the larynx, and connecting the ribs to the breastbone.

stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue

many layers of cube-shaped cells.

plasma membrane

it does NOT allow water soluble molecules to through easily.

golgi apparatus

NOT a structural component of the nucleus.

gap junctions

nutrients and ions can pass directly from one cell to another cell through special membrane junctions.

cytoplasm

three major components include: cytosol, organelles, and inclusions.

ribsomes

found in the cytoplasm and on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

lysosome

the organelle that contains enzymes produced by ribosomes and packaged by the golgi apparatus.

filtration

the movement of fluid through the cell membrane from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area.

ATP

passive processes that move substances across membranes require no ____.

aquaporins

osmosis transports water across membranes using these.

protein carrier or channel

what assists the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion.

endocytosis

two types of this are: phagocytosis and pinocytosis.

hypotonic

a solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell.

amino acids

will NOT be transported across a membrane using passive processes.

facilitated diffusion and solute pumping

require the use of protein carrier molecules.

hypotonic

a cell would plump with water and possibly lyse in which type of solution.

interphase

portion of the cell's life cycle that does NOT involve cell division.

transfer RNA (tRNA)

the molecule that carries an amino acid to the ribosome for incorporation into a protein.

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

correct order of phases of mitosis.

transcription

transfers information from DNA into mRNA.

codons

sequences of three bases found in messenger RNA.

transfer RNA (tRNA)

the molecule that contains an anticodon.

RNA segment

A U G U C A

interphase

DNA replication takes placer during this phase.

goblet cells

found in simple columnar epithelium.

nervous tissue

type of tissue that conducts electrochemical impulses.

simple cuboidal

type of epithelial tissue that is found lining the kidney tubules.

connective tissue

the tissue that is usually well vascularized and has an extensive extracellular matrix.

stratified squamous epithelium

the epithelial tissue found in areas subject to considerable friction and abuse, such as the esophagus.

adipose tissue

fat is best described as this.

reticular connective tissue

the type of tissue that is found in lymph nodes, the spleen, and bone marrow.

endocrine

glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts.

cardiac muscle tissue

movement is involuntary and cells possess striations.

smooth muscle

the type of muscle found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach and in the walls of blood vessels.

dense connective tissue

the type of tissue with a matrix consisting of rows of fibroblasts that manufacture collagen fibers.

scar tissue

fibrosis tissue repair involves the formation of this.

gap junctions

intercalated discs found in cardiac muscle tissues.

flagella

looking into a microscope, you notice cells swimming propelled by a long tail. what cell structure must these cells have in order to be mobile?

cartilage

type of connective tissue that is avascular.

prophase

a cancer drug interferes with the development of mitotic spindle fibers during cell division. what phase is directly affected?

simple squamous

a single layer of flattened cells.

cardiac muscle cells

amitotic at maturity.

true

T OR F: chromatin and chromosomes are both composed of DNA.

false

T OR F: desmosomes are junctions that allow cell communication.

false

T OR F: protein synthesis occurs on lysosomes in the cell.

false

T OR F: protein synthesis occurs on lysosomes in the cell.

false

T OR F: the hydrophobic tails of the plasma membrane promote osmosis.

false

T OR F: pinocytosis and phagocytosis are types of both endocytosis and exocytosis.

true

T OR F: mitotic spindles guide the separation of chromosomes.

true

T OR F: cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm whereas mitosis is the division of the nucleus.

false

T OR F: translation if the stage in protein synthesis during which a complementary mRNA molecule is synthesized from a DNA template.

false

T OR F: stratified epithelium consists of one layer of epithelial cells.

false

T OR F: epithelial tissues are often well vascularized and contain and extracellular matrix.

true

T OR F: the matrix of hyaline cartilage consists of abundant collagen fibers hidden in a rubbery matrix.

false

T OR F: smooth muscle cells are uninucleated spindle-shaped cells that are voluntary.