Anatomy Ch. 4

Free Surface

Part of epithelial cells which is not in contact with other cells.

Basement Membrane

Attaches epithelial cells to underlying tissue

Simple Cuboidal

Epithelium with single layer of cube-shaped cells

stratified columnar

Epithelium with multiple layers of tall, thin cells


Epithelium with layers of cells that appear cubelike when an organ is relaxed and flattened when the organ is distended by fluid.

simple squamos

Epithelium with single layer of flat, often hexagonal cells.


Epithelium with single layer of cells; some cells are tall and thin and reach the free surface, and others do not.

stratified squamos

Epithelium with multiple layers of cells in which the deepest layers are cuboidal or columnar and become flattened at the surface.

stratified epithelium

Found in areas where protection is a major function, e.g., skin, anal canal, and vagina.

simple epithelium

Found in organs where the principal functions are diffusion, filtration, secretion or absorption.


Epithelial cells involved in diffusion or filtration.


Epithelial cells with the major finction of secretion or absorption.


Glands with a duct (e.g., sweat glands).


Glands with no duct; secrete hormones (e.g. pituitary gland).

tight junctions

Bind adjacent cells together and prevent the passage of materials between epithelial cells.


Mechanical links that function to bind cells together; found in areas subjected to stress such as skin epithelium.

gap junctions

Small channels that allow small molecules and ions to pass from one epithelial cell to another.

protein fibers

Extracellular matrix for dense and areolar connective tissue.

protein fibers + ground substance

Extracellular matrix for cartilage and bone.


Extracellular matrix for blood.

dense connective tissue

Closely packed collagen fibers running in the same direction; found in tendons, ligaments, and the dermis of the skin.

loose (areolar) connective tissue

Widely separated collagen fibers running in random directions attachment for organs, glands, muscles, nerves, and skin.

adipose tissue

Very little matrix; cells filled with lipid for energy storage.

hyaline cartilage

Covers the ends of bones where bones come together to form joints.


Found in the disks between vertebrae.

elastic cartilage

Found in the external ear.


Hard connective tissues consisting of living cells and a mineralized matrix.

skeletal muscle

Cylindrical, striated, voluntary muscle cells with several nuclei per cell.

cardiac muscle

Striated, branching, involuntary cells with intercalated disks.

smooth muscle

Cells tapered at each end, unstriated, involuntary, and with a single nucleus.

cell body

Part of the nueron (nerve cell) that contains the nucleus; site of general cell function.


Recieve action potentials and conduct them toward the cell body.


Conducts action potentials away from the cell body.


Support cells of the nervous system; function to nourish, protect and insulate the neurons.

mediators of inflammation

Chemical substances that are released or activated in the injured tissues and adjacent blood vessels.

dilation and increased permeability

2 changes that occur in blood vessels that result in symptoms of redness, heat, and swelling.


Swelling of tissues when proteins and water from blood enter tissues.


Phagocytic white blood cells that fight infection; dead cells in pus.


Result of direct damage, mediators, and edema stimulating nerve cell endings.

disturbance of function

Limitations produced by edema, tissue destruction, and pain.

mucous membranes

Line cavities that open to the outside of the body.

serous membranes

Line the truck cavities and cover the organs located within the truck cavities.

other membranes

Includes, skin, synovial membrane, and periosteum.


The new cells are of the same type as those that were destroyed.


A new type of tissue develops that eventually causes scar production and the loss of some tissue function.

Labile cells

Continue to divide throughout life; these cells can be completely repaired by regeneration.

Stable cells

Do not actively divide after growth ceases, but they do retain the ability to divide after an injury, and are capable of regeneration.

Permanent cells

Cannoth divide, and if killed, they are usually replaced by connective tissue.


Cell surface that reduces friction.


Propel materials along the cell surface.


Greatly increase surface area; cylindrical extensions of the cell membrane.

Collagen fibers

Protein fibers that resemble microscopic ropes; flexible, but resist stretching.

Reticular fibers

Fine short collagen fibers that branch.

Elastic fibers

Protein fibers with structure similar to a coiled bed spring.


Ground substance molecules that trap water; composed of proteins and polysaccharides.

Blast cells

Cells that produce the extracellular matrix.

Cyte cells

Cells that maintain the extracellular matrix.

Clast cells

Cells that break down the extracellular matrix.


Cells that move about and ingest foreign substances.

Mast cells

Nonmotile cells; release chemicals promoting inflammation.


Cartilage cells.


Bone cells


Spaces containing cells within the matrix of bone or cartilage.


Serous membranes associated with the lungs.


Serous membranes associated with the heart.


Serous membranes associated with the abdominopelvic cavity.


A threadlike protein that binds the edges of the wound together and stops the bleeding.


The surface of the clot dries to form a ______.


removes dead neutrophils, cellular debris, and the decomposing clot.

granulation tissue

a delicate connective tissue that replaces the clot consisting of fibroblasts, collagen, and capillaries.


when a large amount of granulation tissue persists.

wound contracture

when fibroblasts pull the edges of the wound closer together.