Anatomy and Physiology

What is the Hypothalamus controlled by?

The feedback of hormones in the blood?

What is the difference between the control of the Central Nervous System and the Endocrine System?

The endocrine system has long-lasting and widespread effects.

What are Hormones?

Chemical messengers that control the growth, differentiation, and metabolism of specific target cells.

What are the two major groups of hormones?

Steroid hormones, and protein hormones.

What are Steriod hormones?

Hormones that target the cells and have direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus.

What are Protein hormones?

Hormones that remain at the cell surface and act through a second messenger; usually adenosine mono phosphate (AMP).

How do most hormones affect cell activity?

By altering the rate of protein synthesis.

What is the pituitary gland?

The master gland, it is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum. It has two major portions: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis).

What are the hormones of the adenohypophysis called?

Tropic hormones because they act mainly on other endocrine glands. i.e.; Somatotropin (STH) or growth hormone (GH), adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH).

What do hormones released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary consist of?

Oxytocin (the labor hormone) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

What are the other important endocrine glands?

Thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas and the gonads (the ovaries and the testes).

What does whole blood consist of?

55% plasma and 45 % formed elements.

What are formed elements?

Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells), Leukocytes (White Blood Cells), and platelets.

Where are formed elements produced?

Produced from stem cells in red bone marrow.

What are Erythrocytes?

Modified formed elements that are used for transport of oxygen.

What is oxygen bounded too?

Bounded to the pigmented protein hemoglobin.

How are the five types of leukocytes distinguished?

Basis of size, appearance of the nucleus, staining properties, and presense or absense of visible cytoplasmic granules.

What are WBC's active in?

Phagocytosis (neutrophils and monocytes), and antibody formation (lymphcytes).

What is the purpose of platelets?

Active in the process of blood clotting.

What does Blood serve for?

Transportation of oxygen and nutrients to body cells and to carry away carbon dixoide and metabolic waste.

What does Plasma contain?

Approximately 10% proteins, ions, nutrients, waste products and hormones, which are dissolved or suspended in water.

What is the heart?

A double pump that sends blood to the lungs for oxygenation through the pulmonary circuit and to the remainder of the body through the systemic circult.

Where is blood recieved?

The atria.

Where is blood pumped into circulation by?

The ventricles.

What are the valves between the atria and the ventricles?

Include the tricuspid on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid on the left.

What are Semilunar valves?

Found at the entrances of the pulmonary trunk and the aorta.

How is blood supplosed to the heart muscle (the myocardium)?

Through the coronary arterties.

Where does Blood drains from the myocardium directly into?

Right atrium through the coronary sinus.

What is the hearts intrinsic beat initiated by?

The sinoatrial node and transmitted along a conduction system through the myocardium.

What does the ECG measure?

The wave of electrical activity of the intrinsic beat that in initiated by the sinoatrial node and transmitted along a conuction system through the myocardium.

What is the cardiac cycle?

The period from the end of one ventricular contraction to the end of the next ventricular contraction.

What is the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle?


What is the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle?


What does the Vascular system include?

Arteries that carry blood away from the heart, veins that carry blood toward the heart, and the microscopic vessesl (the capillaries) through which exchanges take place betwen the blood and the cells of the body.

Where do the systemic arteries begin?

The aorta, which sends branches to all parts of the body.

What are body planes?

Imaginary lines used for reference.

What are the different planes in the human body used?

Median plane, coronal plane, and transverse plane.

What is a section?

A real or an imaginary cut made along a plane.

What is a cut along the median plane?

Sagittal section.

What is a cut along the coronal plane?

Frontal section.

What is a cut through the transverse plane?


What is anatomical position?

The body is erect, feet are slightly apart, the head is held high, and the palms of the hands are facing forward.

What are the directional terms?

Superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, proximal, and distal.

What is the dorsal cavity?

Includes the cranial and spinal cavities.

What is the ventral cavity?

Includes the orbits and the nasal, oral, thoracic, and abdominalpelvic cavities.

What is Histology?

The study of tissues.

What is a tissue?

A group of cells that act together to perform a specific function.

What are the four fundamental tissues?

Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve tissue.

What is Epithelial tissue?

Cells over, line and protect the body and it's internal organs.

What is Connective tissue?

Framework of the body, providing support and structure for the organs.

What is Nerve tissue?

Composed of neurons and connective tissue cells that are referred to as neuroglia.

What is Muscle tissue?

Tissue that has the ability to contract or shorten. Voluntary muscle (skeletal) and involuntary muscle (smooth muscle and cardiac muscle).

What is a cell?

The basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs.

What is an organelle?

A object inside a cell that has a specific function.

What is a nucleus?

Contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Main part of a Eukaryotic cell.

What is a Ribosome?

Used for synthesis of proteins.

What are enzymes?

Proteins (99%), that regulate all chemical reactions in the body.

What is Mitosis necessary for?

Growth and repair.

What happens during Mitosis?

The DNA is duplicated and distributed evenly to two daughter cells.

What is Meiosis?

Special cell division that takes place in the gonads (ovaries and testes), the chromosome number is reduced from 46 to 23, so when the egg and sperm unite in fertilization the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes.

What are the principal membranes?

Mucous, serous, synovial, and cutaneous - composed of epithelial tissue.

What are the different types of glands?

Sudoriferous, sebaceous, and ceruminous.

Where does cartilage replace bone in embryonic development?

Joints, the thorax, and various rigid tubes.

What is the largest organ in the body?

The skin.

What does the skin consist of?

Two layers: the epidermis (the outer most protective layer of dead keratinized epithelial cells; and the dermis which is the underlying layer of connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and the associated skin structures.

What does the Dermis rest on?

The subcutaneous tissue that connects the skin to the superficial muscles.

What are the layers of the Epidermis?

Stratum corneum, stratum lucedum, tratum granulosum, and the inner most stratum germinativum.

What layer does mitosis occur in the Epidermis?

The stratum gerninativum.

What is Melanin?

A protein pigment found in epidermal cells, protect skin against radiation from the sun.

What does the Dermis contain?

Fibrous connective tissue with blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, hair follicles, and glands.

What are the two types of sweat glands?

Eccrine and apocrine.

What are Eccrine glands?

Widely most distrubuted sweat glands that regulate the body tempearture by releasing a watery scretion that evaporates from the surface of the skin.

What are Apocrine glands?

Mainly in the armpits and the groin area. Contains bit of cytoplasm from the secreting cells. The cell debris attracts bacteria, and the presense of bacteria results in body oder.

What do Sebaceous glands release?

Sebum - through the hair follicles that lubricates the skin and prevents drying.

What is oil produced by?

Holocrine secretion, in which whole cells of the gland are part of the secretion.

What are the appendages of the skin?

Hair and nails.

What are hair and nails composed of?

A strong protein called keratin.

What can hair, skin and nails be used for in diagnosis?

They may show changes in different diseases that can be used in clincal conditions. i.e., skin cancer is a clinical condition that is associated with the skin.

What does the bodys framework consist of?

Bone, cartilage, ligaments, plus the joints between the bones.

What are the functions of the skeletal system?

Support, permission of movement, blood cell formation (hemopoiesis), protection of internal organs, detoxification (removal of poisons), provision for muscle attachment, and mineral storage (particularly calcium and phosphorus).

What are the different shapes of bones?

Long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid.

What is a Long bone?

Has an iregular epiphysis at each end, composed mainly of spongy (cancellous) bone, and a shaft or diaphysis, composed mainly of compact bone.

What are the cells that form compact bone?


What do Osteoblasts turn into when they become fixed in the dense bone matrix?

They stop dividng but continue to maintain bone tissue as osteocytes.

What does the axial skeleton consist of?

28 bones of the skull. Separated into 14 facial bones, and the 14 bones of teh cranium.; and 33 bones of the veretebral column. Final portion consist of the bones of the thorax, the sternum and the 12 pairs of ribs.

What are the facial bones?

Two nasal bones, two maxillary bones, two zygomatic bones, one mandible (only moveable bone in the skull), two palatine bones, one vomer, two lacrimal bones, and two inferior nasal conchae.

What do the bones of the cranium consist of?

Single occipital, frontal, ehtmoid, and sphenoid and the paired parietal, temporal, and ossicles of the ear.

What are the ossicles of the ear?

Malleus, incus and stapes.

What are the bones of the vertebral column?

Seven cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, five lumbar vertebrae, five sacral vertebrae (fused to form the sacrum), and the occygeal vertebrae (tailbone.

What does the Appendicular Skeleton consist of?

Includes the bones of girdles and the limbs.

What is the upper portion of the appendicular skeleton?

Consists of the pectoral or shoulder girdle, the clavicle and scapula and the upper extremeity.

What are the bones in the arm?

The humerus, the radius and ulna, the carpals (wrist bones), the metatarsals (bones of the hand), and the phalanges (bones of the fingers).

What is the lower portion of the appendicular skeleton?

Consists of the pelvic girdle or os coxae, and the lower extremitys.

What does the os Coxae consist of?

Consists of the fused ilium, ischium and pubis.

What do the lower extremeitys of the appendicular skeleton consist of?

Femur (thighbone), the tibia and fibula, the tarsals (ankle bones), the metatarsals (bones of the foot), and the phalanges.

How do Muscles produce movement?

By contracting in response to nervous stimulation.

What does Muscle contraction result from?

Sliding together of actin and myosin filaments within the muscle cell or fiber.

What does each muscle cell consist of?

Myofibrils, which in turn are made up of still smaller units called sarcomeres.

What needs to happen for a muscle cell to contract?

Calcium and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) must be present. Nervous stimulation from motor neurons cause the release of calcium ions from the sacroplasmic reticulum. Calcium ions attach to inhibitory proteins on the actin filaments within the cell, moving them aside so that cross-bridges can form between actin and myosin filamens. Using energy supplied by ATP, the filaments slide together to produce contraction.

What are Skeletal muscles?

Make up the muscular system, also called voluntary muscle because they are under concious control. These muscles must work in pairs.

What is a prime mover?

A muscle that executes a given movement.

What is the Antagonist?

A muscle that provides the opposite movement.

What are synergists?

Muscles that may work in cooperation with the prime mover.

How can muscles be classified?

According to the movement they elicit. There are flexors and extensors. Abducters and adducters.

What is a flexor?

Reduce the angle at the joint.

What is an extensor?

Increase the angle at the joint.

What is an abductor?

Draw the limb away from the midline.

What is an adductor?

Return the limb back toward the body.

What does the Nervous System consist of?

Brain, spinal cord, and the nerves.

What is the function of the Nervous System?

This vital system enables us to percieve many of the changes that take place in our external and internal environments and to respond to those changes (seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling and touching are examples of perception). It enables us to think, reason, remember and carry out other abstract activities. It makes possible body movements by skeletal muscles, by supplying them with nerve impulses that cause contraction. It works closely with endocrine glands, correlating and integrating body functions such as digestion and reprodution.

What do all actions of the nervous system depend on?

The transmission of nerve impulses over neurons or nerve cells.

What are Nerve cells?

The functional units of the nervous system.

What are the main parts of a Neuron?

Body, axon and dendrites.

What are dendrites?

Trasmit the impulse toward the cell body.

What are axons?

Transmit the impulse away from the body.

How is the Nervous System divided?

Central Nervous System (CNS), and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

What does the PNS consist of?

All the nerves that transmit information to and from the CNS.

What do Sensory (Afferent) neurons trasmit?

Trasmit nerve impulses toward the CNS.

What do Motor (Efferent) neurons transmit?

Transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS, toward the effector organs such as the muscles, glands, and digestive organs.

What are the major parts of the brain?

The cerebrum (associated with movement and sensory input), the cerebellum (responsible for muscular coordiation), and the medulla oblongata (controls many vital functions such as respiration and heart rate).

What is the Spinal Cord?

Approximately 18 inches long and extends from the base of the skull (foramen magnum) to the first or second lumbar veretebra (L1 or L2).

How many pairs of spinal nerves exit the spinal cord?


What are Simple Spinal Reflexes?

Relfexes in which nerve impulses travel through the spinal cord only and do not reach the brain.

What are the different tracts to and from the brain of the Spinal Cord?

Ascending and descending tracts.

Where do Sensory impulses enter?

The dorsal horns of the spinal cord.

Where do Motor impulses leave?

The ventral horns of the spinal cord?

What is the Endocrine system?

Assists the nervous system in homeostasis and plays important roles in growth and sexual maturation.

Where do the Endocrine System and the Nervous system meet?

The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

What governs the Pituitary Gland?

The hypothalamus.

What happens to arteries as they get farther away from the heart?

They become thinner and thinner.

What are the smallest arteries called?


What is the Superior and Inferior Vena Cavae?

Large veins that empty into the right atrium of the heart.

What is the structure of artery walls?

Thick and elastic. They carry blood under high pressure.

What do Vasoconstriction and vasodilation result from?

Contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the arterial walls.

What do Vasoconstriction and vasodilation influence?

Blood pressure and blood distribution to the tissues.

What is the structure of veins walls?

Thinner and less elastic then those of the arteries, they carry blood under lower pressure.

What are Mechanisms that draw venous blood back to the heart?

Pressure of skeletal muscle on the veines, expansion of the chest in breathing, and valves in the veins of the legs that keep blood moving in a forward direction.

What are the components of the Respiratory System?

The nose, phayrnx, larynx, trachae, bronchi, lungs with their alveoli, diaphragm and muscles surrounding the ribs.

What is Respiration controllded by?

The respiratory control center in the medulla of the brain.

What does the Respiratory System do?

Oxygen to the body and elimantes carbon dioxide.

What is External Respiration?

Refers to the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli.

What is Internal Respiration?

Refers to the exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells.

What do the passageways between the nasal cavity and the alveoli serve as?

Conduction of gases to and from the lungs. Also to warm, filter, and moisten upcoming air.

What are the upper respiratory tubules lined with?

Cilia that help to trap debris and keep foreign substances from entering the lungs.

What does Inhalation require?

Contraction of the diaphragm to enlarge the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs.

What is Exhalation?

A passive process during which the lungs recoil as the respiratory muscles relax and the horax decreases in size.

When is oxygen released from hemoglobin?

When the concentration of oxygen drops in the tissues.

What is carbon dioxide converted to?

Bicarbonate ion by carbonic anhydrase within red blood cells. This also release hydrogen ions, Co2 remains as a regulator of blood pH.

What does the ailentary canal consist of?

The mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

What are the accessory organs of digestion?

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.

What happens to food in the mouth?

It is ingested in the mouth, where it is mechanically broken down by the teeth and tongue in the process of mastication (chewing).

What is Saliva produced by?

The three pairs of salivary glands, which lubricates and dilutes the chewed food.

What does Saliva contain?

An enzyme called amylase that starts the digestion of complex carbohydrates.

What is a bolus?

A ball of food that is formed.

What do the constrictive muscles of the pharynx do?

Force the food into the upper portion of the esophagus, and the food is swallowed.

What is the esophagus?

A narrow tube leading from the pharynx to the stomach.

What are the four main layers of the digestive tract?

The mucous membrane, the submucous layer, the muscular layer and the serous layer.

What happens when food enters the stomach?

Gastric glands secrete hydrochloric acid that breaks down food. The stomach muscle churns and mixes the bolus of food, turning the mass into a soupy substance.

What is the soupy substance that the stomace muscle turns the bolus into?


Where does most digestion and absorption of food occur?

The small intestine.

What happens to food in the small intestine?

It is acted on by various enzymes from the small intestine and pancreas, and by bile from the liver.

What does the pancreas contribute?

Water to dilute the chyme and bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach.

What does the small intestine consist of?

Three major regions: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.

What does the small intestine absorb?

Nutrients, amino acids and simple sugars derived from proteins and carbohydrates directly into the blood.

Where is fat absorbed?

Into the lymph by the lacteals, which eventually are added to the bloodstream.

What happens to all the nutrients after they are absorbed into the blood?

They enter the hepatic portan vein to be routed to the liver for decontamination.

What are Villi?

Small fingerlike projections that greatly increase the surface area of the intestinal wall.

What does the large intestine do?

Reabsorbs water and stores and eliminates undigested food.

What can be found in the large intestine?

Abdundant bacteria and intestinal flora.

What is the large intestine arranged into?

Five portions: the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon and the rectum.

What is the anus?

The opening for defecation (expelling of stool).

What is the urinary system?

Consisting of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and the urethra.

What do the kidneys do?

Filter the blood.

What do ureters do?

Transport urine to the urinary bladder, where urine is stored before urination through the urethra to the outside.

What are the functional units of the kidney?

Nephrons - small coiled tubes filter waste material out of blood brought to the kidneys by the renal artery.

Where does the actual filteration process occur in the Nephron?

Through the glomerulus in the Bowman's capsule of the nephron under the force of blood pressure.

What happens as the glomerular filtrate passes through the nephron?

Components needed by the body such as water, glucose, and ions leave the nephron by diffusion and reenter the blood.

Where is water reabsorbed in the nephron?

The tubules of the nephron.

What is the final product of the Nephrons per kidney?


What are the male and female sex organs?

The testes and the ovaries.

What are the functions of the sex organs?

Production of gametes (sex cells) and production of hormones. Under the c ontrol of tropic hormones from the pituitary gland.

What is the reproductive activity in women?


What is the reproductive activity in men?


How are gametes formed?


Where do spermatozoa develop?

The semineiferous tubules of each testis.

Where is testosterone produced?

Interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules.

What does testosterone do?

Influences sperm cell development and also produces the male secondary sex characteristics such as body hair and deep voice.

Where is sperm stored once produced?

Epididymis of each testis.

What is the pathway for sperm during ejaculation?

Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra.

What are the glands that produce the transport medium semen?

Seminal vesicles, p orstate gland, and bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands.

What is testicular control under?

Two anterior pituitary hormones - FSH which stimulates sperm production and - ICSH Interstital cell stimulating hormone or LH that stimulates the intersitial cells to produce testosterone.

What happens in women each month?

Under the influence of FSH, several eggs ripen within the ovarian follicles in the ovary.

What initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy?

Estrogen produced by the follicle.

What happens at day 14 of the cycle in women?

LH is released from the pituitary, which stimulates ovulation and the conversion of the follicle of the corpus luteum.

What does the Corpus Luteum secrete?

The hormone progesterone, which further stimulates development of the endometrium.

What happens if Fertilization occurs in a woman?

The corpus luteum remains function.

What happens if Fertilization doesnt occur in a woman?

The corpus luteum degenerates and menstruation begins.

What happens to the egg after ovulation?

The egg is swept into the oviduct or fallopian tube.

What happens if fertilization occurs in the oviduct or fallopian tube?

The fertilized egg or zygote travels to the uterus and implants itself within the endometrium.

What nourishes the developing embryo in the uterus?

The placenta which is fomred by materal and embryonic tissue.

What happens during pregnancy?

Hormones from the placenta maintain the endometrium and prepare the breasts for milk production.