Kandell Chapter 19

Plasma makes up approximately what percentage of whole blood?

55%

Except for the amount of __________, plasma and interstitial fluid differ little in composition.

protein

The agranular leukocyte (agranulocyte) that is capable of phagocytosis is the __________.

monocyte

Reticulocyte is a stage in the development of __________.

red blood cells

People with type "O" blood are considered "universal donors" for transfusions because __________.

their blood lacks A and B antigens

The white blood cell type that most rapidly increases in number after a bacterial infection is the __________.

neutrophils

Antigens of the surface of red blood cells are also called ________ and antibodies in the blood plasma are also called ________.

agglutinogens; agglutinins

The common pathway in coagulation ends with __________.

conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin

Which of these phases is not part of hemostasis?

erythropoiesis phase

Most of the protein factors that are required for clotting are synthesized by

the liver

Except for __________, the following statements about blood are true.

The pH is slightly acidic.

The formed elements of blood consist of _________.

-red blood cells
-platelets
-white blood cells
**All of these are formed elements of blood.

Plasma is closest in composition to

interstitial fluid.

Which of the following is a function of the blood?

-transport of gases
-defense against toxins and pathogens
-transport of body heat
-transport of nutrients and wastes
**All of the answers are correct.

Serum can't coagulate because the __________ has been removed.

fibrinogen

The most abundant proteins in blood plasma are

albumins.

When a person who lives at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains, you would expect

- a rise in hematocrit.
-a drop in oxygen levels.
-the release of erythropoietin.
-an increase in red blood cell production.
**All of the answers are correct.

The disease sickle cell anemia is an example of what can happen if

a gene for adult hemoglobin is abnormal.

Which of these proteins functions to store or transport iron?

ferritin, hemosiderin, and transferrin

In which of the following situations would you expect the blood level of bilirubin to be elevated?

an alcoholic with a damaged liver

Excess iron is stored in the liver and spleen as

hemosiderin and ferritin.

The waste product bilirubin is produced from

heme molecules lacking iron.

In adults, erythropoiesis exclusively takes place in

red bone marrow.

The yellow color that is visible in the eyes and skin in jaundice results from

-excessive amounts of bilirubin in the plasma.
-extensive breakdown of RBCs.
-destruction of hemoglobin.
-the recycling of hemoglobin.
**All of the answers are correct.

White blood cells that are increased in allergic individuals are the

eosinophils.

White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are

basophils.

The most numerous WBCs in a differential count of a healthy individual are

neutrophils.

Which of the following is true of basophils?

-granules contain heparin
-attract other defense cells
-constitute about 1 percent of WBCs
-granules contain histamine
**All of the answers are correct.

Eosinophils function in:

destroying antibody-labeled antigens

A patient has an infected puncture wound to her foot. Which type of white blood cell would you expect to be elevated in a differential white cell count?

neutrophils

Megakaryocytes are the source of __________.

platelets

The function of platelets is to assist in the

process called hemostasis.

During fibrinolysis __________.

clots slowly dissolve

The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by the

release of tissue factor (Factor III) by damaged endothelium.

Some rat poisons contain a toxin that blocks the liver's ability to utilize vitamin K. Animals that consume this poison would die of

hemorrhage.

The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is catalyzed by the enzyme

thrombin.

Which plasma protein transports fatty acids and some hormones?

albumin

Which organ secretes most of the plasma proteins?

liver

The average life span of a red blood cell is

4 months.

In adults, the only site of red blood cell production, and the primary site of white blood cell formation, is the

red bone marrow.

People with type AB blood are considered the "universal recipient" for transfusions because

their blood lacks A or B agglutinins (antibodies).

An infected wound contains typically contains

-pus.
-tissue fluids.
-dead neutrophils.
-cellular debris.
**All of the answers are correct.

During a bacterial infection you would expect to see increased numbers of

neutrophils