Objective- Anatomy and Physiology

selective permeability

barrier allows some substance to pass through it while excluding others


spreading of particles in a gas solution with movement towards uniform distribution of particles

active transport

net movement of substance across membrane against concentration/electrical gradient; requires energy

passive transport

membrane transport, requires no energy

simple diffusion

unassisted diffusion of solutes through plasma membrane


diffusion of solvent through membrane from dilute to concentrated solution

facilitated diffusion

passage of certain needed substance that are lipid-insoluble and too large to pass membrane pores

solute pumps

active transport uses ATP to energize protein carriers


move substance outside of cell


energy required, move substance in the cell


ingestion of solid particles by the cell


engulfing extracellular fluid by cell


excessive, extracellular fluid by cell


have uniform tension, same tone


below normal tone/tension

DNA-provides encoded information and sends that to RNA
mRNA- carry message instructions for protein synthesis
rRNA- forms ribosomes
tRNA- transfer ribosomes

describe DNA roles and 3 major variettes of RNA in protein synthesis

DNA replication- DNA helix uncoils and gradually separates into 2 nucleo tide chains
mitosis- formation of 2 daughter nuclei with exact gene as the mother nucleus

describe the process of DNA replication and of mitosis

epithelial- simple squamous, simple cuboid, simple columnar, and pseudo stratified. absorption, filtration, secretion, and protein. tight together
connective- bone, blood, hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage, loose, and dense. bonding bod

name 4 major tissue types and their chief subcategories. explain the 4 major tissue types differ structurally and functionally

nervous- brian, spinal chord, and nerves
skeletal muscle- attach to bone
cardiac muscle- heart
smooth muscle- hollow organs- stomach,uterus
epithelial- body covering, body linings, and glandular tissue
simple squamous- form membrane
simple cuboidal- gland

give the chief locations of various tissue in body


replacement of destroyed tissue by same cell


repair dense tissue by scar tissue


an abnormal growth of cells; cancerous


not malignant, grow slowly and seldom kill their host


life threaten; pertain to neoplasm that spread and lead to death; cancer

startum corneum

cells are dead, flat membranous sacs filled with keratin, glycolipids in extracellular space

stratum granulosum

cells are flatten, organelles deteriorating, cytoplasm full of granules

stratum spinosum

cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin

stratum basale

cells are actively divided stem cells; some newly formed cells become part of the more superficial layers