Communication Disorders Midterm

communication disorder

impairs the ability to both receive, send, process and comprehend verbal, nonverbal, and graphic information

speech disorder

may be evident in the atypical production of speech sounds, interruption in the flow of speaking, or abnormal production and/or absences of voice quality, including pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration

language disorder

an impairment in comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or symbol systems, such as English

hearing disorder

a result of impaired sensitivity of the auditory or hearing system

central auditory processing disorders

deficits in the processing of information from audible signals

augmentative/alternative communication

systems that are attempts often taught by SLPs to compensate and facilitate, on a temporary or permanent basis, for impaired or disabled communication disorders


specialists who measure hearing ability and identify, assess, manage, and prevent disorders of hearing and balance


provision of language assessment and intervention via the internet

speech language pathologists

professionals who provide an assortment of services related to communicative disorders


the probability of benefit from an intervention method under ideal conditions


the probability of benefit from an intervention method under average conditions


results from application of the quickest method involving the least effort and the greatest positive benefit, including unintended effects


an exchange of ideas between senders and recievers


study of influences (cultural identity, setting, and participants) on communication


a socially shared code that is used to represent concepts


rules of langauge

What does it mean that language is generative?

this means that you can create new utterances

What does it mean that languages are dynamic?

they change over time


sound system of English, consists of about 43 phonemes, or unique speech sounds

phonotactic rules

specify how sounds may be arranged in words


involves the structure of words


smallest grammatical unit in a language

free morpheme

may stand alone in a word

bound morpheme

cannot be used alone, change meaning of word when added


pertains to how words are arranged in a sentence and to the ways in which one word may affect another


content or meaning of language

semantic features

the pieces of meaning that come together to define a particular word


the driving force behind all aspects of language


the smooth, forward flow of communication


speed at which we talk


listener's perception of how high or low a sound is

habitual pitch

basic tone that an individual uses most of the time


pitch movement within an utterance


refers to the way we move our bodies


study of the physical distance between people as it affects communication


the effect of time on communication


the cause or origin of a problem, may be used to classify a communication problem

congenital disorders

present at birth

acquired disorders

result from illness, accident, or environmental circumstances anytime later in life


differences that reflect a particular, regional, social, cultural, or ethnic identity, and are not disorders of speech or language


pitch, loudness, and quality


production of sounds


when paralysis, weakness, or poor coordination of the muscles result in poor speech articulation

developmental disfluency

I want want want a cookie


er, um, ya know


unexpected pauses


g go go




when speech behaviors exceed or are qualitatively different from the norm or are accompanied by excessive tension, struggle, and fear

vocal abuse

characterized by excessive yelling, screaming, or even occasional loud singing that results in hoarseness or another voice disorder.


affecting primarily one ear

conductive hearing loss

caused by damage to the outer or middle ear - report sounds are generally too soft

sensorimotor hearing loss

involves problems with the inner ear and/or auditory nerve - likely to affect a person's ability to discriminate and consequently understand speech sounds

mixed hearing loss

a combination fo both conductive and sensorineural loss


difficulty swallowing


refers to the number or percentage of people within a specified population who have a particular disorder or condition at a given point in time

assessment of communication disorders

the systematic process of obtaining information from many sources, through various means, and in different settings to verify and specify communication and swallowing strengths and weaknesses


distinguishes an individual's difficulties from a broad range of possible problems

diagnostic therapy

the SLP will work with the client for a time and will obtain a clearer picture of the person's communication abilities and limitations in the process


cause of disease

predisposing causes

underly the problem

precipitating causes

triggered the disorder

perpetuating causes

continue or add to the problem


an informed prediction of the outcome of a disorder, both with and without intervention, and is based in part on the nature and severity of the disorder

authentic data

actual real-life information, in sufficient quantity to be able to make meaningful and accurate decisions

norm referenced

meaning they yield scores that are used to compare a client with a sample of similar individuals

criterion referenced

test evaluates a client's strengths and weaknesses with regard to particular skills and does not make comparisons to other children

dynamic assessment

Includes probing to explore a client's ability to modify behavior by producing previously misarticulated sounds, learning a language rule, reducing disfluencies, and the like

language sampling

technique when assessing the communication of both children and adults

behavior modification

systematic method of changing behavior

incidental teaching

SLP follows the client's lead but teaches along the way

support groups

consisting of individuals who have similar difficulties that often provide an avenue to practice what has been learned in therapy

booster treatment

additional therapy, based on retesting, offered after treatment has been terminated