Communication Disorders Midterm

communication disorder

impairs the ability to both receive, send, process and comprehend verbal, nonverbal, and graphic information

speech disorder

may be evident in the atypical production of speech sounds, interruption in the flow of speaking, or abnormal production and/or absences of voice quality, including pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration

language disorder

an impairment in comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or symbol systems, such as English

hearing disorder

a result of impaired sensitivity of the auditory or hearing system

central auditory processing disorders

deficits in the processing of information from audible signals

augmentative/alternative communication

systems that are attempts often taught by SLPs to compensate and facilitate, on a temporary or permanent basis, for impaired or disabled communication disorders

audiologists

specialists who measure hearing ability and identify, assess, manage, and prevent disorders of hearing and balance

telepractice

provision of language assessment and intervention via the internet

speech language pathologists

professionals who provide an assortment of services related to communicative disorders

efficacy

the probability of benefit from an intervention method under ideal conditions

effectiveness

the probability of benefit from an intervention method under average conditions

efficiency

results from application of the quickest method involving the least effort and the greatest positive benefit, including unintended effects

communication

an exchange of ideas between senders and recievers

sociolinguistics

study of influences (cultural identity, setting, and participants) on communication

language

a socially shared code that is used to represent concepts

grammar

rules of langauge

What does it mean that language is generative?

this means that you can create new utterances

What does it mean that languages are dynamic?

they change over time

phonology

sound system of English, consists of about 43 phonemes, or unique speech sounds

phonotactic rules

specify how sounds may be arranged in words

morphology

involves the structure of words

morpheme

smallest grammatical unit in a language

free morpheme

may stand alone in a word

bound morpheme

cannot be used alone, change meaning of word when added

syntax

pertains to how words are arranged in a sentence and to the ways in which one word may affect another

semantics

content or meaning of language

semantic features

the pieces of meaning that come together to define a particular word

pragmatics

the driving force behind all aspects of language

fluency

the smooth, forward flow of communication

rate

speed at which we talk

pitch

listener's perception of how high or low a sound is

habitual pitch

basic tone that an individual uses most of the time

intonation

pitch movement within an utterance

kinesics

refers to the way we move our bodies

proxemics

study of the physical distance between people as it affects communication

chronemics

the effect of time on communication

etiology

the cause or origin of a problem, may be used to classify a communication problem

congenital disorders

present at birth

acquired disorders

result from illness, accident, or environmental circumstances anytime later in life

dialects

differences that reflect a particular, regional, social, cultural, or ethnic identity, and are not disorders of speech or language

voice

pitch, loudness, and quality

articulation

production of sounds

dysarthria

when paralysis, weakness, or poor coordination of the muscles result in poor speech articulation

developmental disfluency

I want want want a cookie

fillers

er, um, ya know

hesitations

unexpected pauses

repetitions

g go go

prolongations

wwwwwelll

stuttering

when speech behaviors exceed or are qualitatively different from the norm or are accompanied by excessive tension, struggle, and fear

vocal abuse

characterized by excessive yelling, screaming, or even occasional loud singing that results in hoarseness or another voice disorder.

unilateral

affecting primarily one ear

conductive hearing loss

caused by damage to the outer or middle ear - report sounds are generally too soft

sensorimotor hearing loss

involves problems with the inner ear and/or auditory nerve - likely to affect a person's ability to discriminate and consequently understand speech sounds

mixed hearing loss

a combination fo both conductive and sensorineural loss

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

prevelance

refers to the number or percentage of people within a specified population who have a particular disorder or condition at a given point in time

assessment of communication disorders

the systematic process of obtaining information from many sources, through various means, and in different settings to verify and specify communication and swallowing strengths and weaknesses

diagnosis

distinguishes an individual's difficulties from a broad range of possible problems

diagnostic therapy

the SLP will work with the client for a time and will obtain a clearer picture of the person's communication abilities and limitations in the process

etiology

cause of disease

predisposing causes

underly the problem

precipitating causes

triggered the disorder

perpetuating causes

continue or add to the problem

prognosis

an informed prediction of the outcome of a disorder, both with and without intervention, and is based in part on the nature and severity of the disorder

authentic data

actual real-life information, in sufficient quantity to be able to make meaningful and accurate decisions

norm referenced

meaning they yield scores that are used to compare a client with a sample of similar individuals

criterion referenced

test evaluates a client's strengths and weaknesses with regard to particular skills and does not make comparisons to other children

dynamic assessment

Includes probing to explore a client's ability to modify behavior by producing previously misarticulated sounds, learning a language rule, reducing disfluencies, and the like

language sampling

technique when assessing the communication of both children and adults

behavior modification

systematic method of changing behavior

incidental teaching

SLP follows the client's lead but teaches along the way

support groups

consisting of individuals who have similar difficulties that often provide an avenue to practice what has been learned in therapy

booster treatment

additional therapy, based on retesting, offered after treatment has been terminated