Cell Structure Exam 3 - Morgan Exam

The endomembrane system is composed of a series of organelles. The [Blank1] separates the nucleus from the cytosol and [Blank2] within it govern import and export of materials to and from the nucleus. The [Blank3] is continuous with the nuclear envelope a

1. Nuclear envelope
2. Nucelar pores
3. Endoplasmic Reticulum
4. Golgi Apparatus
5. Endosomes
6. Lysosome

Which of the following statements is true?
All receptors are located on the cell surface of a target cell.
All enzyme-coupled receptors must bind to an associated enzyme to become activated
Ion-channel-coupled receptors are often found on neurons and musc

Ion-channel-coupled receptors are often found on neurons and muscle cells.

Which of the following statements is true about the role of enzymes in the oxidation of sugars:
An enzyme must be able to function in all steps of cellular respiration in order to be involved
Enzymes allow reactions to proceed in a stepwise manner at appr

Enzymes allow reactions to proceed in a stepwise manner at appropriate temperatures for the cell

Which of these is a process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food molecules; usually accompanied by the uptake of O2 and release of CO2?
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis
Oxidative Phosphorylation

Cellular Respiration

Which of the following is an example of endocrine cell signaling?
A secreted signal acts locally in the extracellular fluid to influence nearby cells.
A membrane-bound signal molecule binds to a receptor on a neighboring cell
A neurotransmitter binding to

A secreted signal is available to interact with cells in the whole body via the bloodstream

Which of the following statements is true?
Receptor tyrosine kinases remove phosphate groups from the tyrosine amino acids of proteins.
Receptor tyrosine kinases often dimerize upon binding of their ligand, resulting in their activation.
Receptor tyrosine

Receptor tyrosine kinases often dimerize upon binding of their ligand, resulting in their activation.

Which statement is true regarding mitochondria?
All cells have roughly the same number of mitochondria.
Mitochondria can be either small and round in shape or long continuous tubules.
Mitochondria never divide or fuse.
Mitochondria remain in the same loca

Mitochondria can be either small and round in shape or long continuous tubules.

Which organelle is responsible for sorting transport vesicles, modifying proteins, has cis and trans faces, and appears as flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endosomes
Lysosomes
Golgi Apparatus

Golgi Apparatus

Which of the following statements is true?
Notch signaling is a pathway used in very few organisms.
Notch signaling requires the diffusion of an extracellular ligand from a distance and would be classified as endocrine signaling.
Steroid hormone-induced s

Steroid hormones move across the plasma membrane in order to bind to their receptors.

Bonus Question 1: Which signaling pathway did Dr. Morgan study for about 10 years during her undergraduate and graduate research training?

Notch

Which of the following statements is true about the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles?
If a cell did not produce adaptins, you would expect that more clathrin-coated endocytic vesicles than usual would form.
If a cell did not produce dynamin, you woul

If a cell did not produce dynamin, you would expect to observe deeply invaginated clathrin-coated pits along the membrane, but no clathrin-coated vesicles.

Which of the following statements is true?
GDP is phosphorylated to form GTP by a GAP in order to active GTP-binding proteins.
Protein phosphatases add phosphate groups to proteins.
GEFs promote hydrolysis of GTP to GDP
GTP-binding proteins are active whe

GTP-binding proteins are active when bound to GTP, and inactive when bound to GDP.

If a protein is being transported to this organelle, will transport happen when the protein is folded, unfolded, or mid-synthesis?
Possible answers: folded, unfolded, mid-synthesis.
Answers for this question may be used more than once.
Nucleus: [Blank1]
M

1. folded
2. unfolded
3. folded
4. mid-synthesis

Consider a protein that contains an ER signal sequence at its N-terminus and a nuclear localization sequence in its middle. Where will this protein's final destination be in the cell?
Nucleus
Cytosol
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Yeast cells can proliferate both in the presence of O2 (aerobically) and in its absence (anaerobically). Under which of the two conditions could you expect the cells to proliferate better? Explain your answer. (6 points)

Although they can proliferate under both conditions it can be expected that they would proliferate best under aerobic conditions opposed to anaerobic conditions. This is because oxidative phosphorylation is the payoff stage of catabolism that requires O2

Which of the following statements is true?
Vesicles resulting from pinocytosis are small, whereas vesicles resulting from phagocytosis are relatively larger to accommodate large particles such as bacteria.
During constitutive exocytosis, selected proteins

Vesicles resulting from pinocytosis are small, whereas vesicles resulting from phagocytosis are relatively larger to accommodate large particles such as bacteria.

Which of the following observations is false and does NOT support the theory that mitochondria are descendants of prokaryotic ancestors?
Mitochondria have ribosomes.
Mitochondria are found within bacteria and archaea.
Mitochondria have DNA based genomes.

Mitochondria are found within bacteria and archaea.

Which of these proteins is a key target of Ca2+ signaling?
acetylcholine
Delta
Notch
calmodulin

calmodulin

Which of the following statements is true?
G-protein-coupled receptors are typically coupled to monomeric GTP-binding proteins.
G-protein-coupled receptors activate their associated G proteins by phosphorylating GDP to create GTP.
G-protein-coupled recept

G-protein-coupled receptors are typically seven pass transmembrane proteins.

Bonus Question 2: Which signaling pathway has a ridiculous naming pattern (in Dr. Morgan's opinion) for pathway members?

Map Kinase

Which of the following is true of photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis takes place in the inner chloroplast membrane.
Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: the light reactions and the light-independent (or dark) reactions.
ATP and FADH are products of Stage

Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: the light reactions and the light-independent (or dark) reactions.

Which of the following statements is true?
Pinocytosis is used by a macrophage engulfing a bacterial cell.
Phagocytosis is used by some viruses to invade host cells.
Exocytosis would be used during a cell's release of a hormone into the extracellular spac

Exocytosis would be used during a cell's release of a hormone into the extracellular space.

Which of the following is an ancient enzyme that was likely an early development in the evolution of energy-generating systems?
ATPase
Pyruvate dehydrogenase
3-phosophoglycerate transferase
Rubisco

ATPase

Which of the following molecules is a common second messenger in cell signaling pathways that regulate early development as well as key functions of nerve, muscle, and secretory cells?
Na+
Acetylcholine
Ca2+
K+

Ca2+

Which of the following statements is true?
Proteins destined for mitochondria and chloroplasts must translocate across two membranes, requiring close proximity of the two membranes during this process.
Nuclear import is powered by hydrolysis of GDP to GTP

Proteins destined for mitochondria and chloroplasts must translocate across two membranes, requiring close proximity of the two membranes during this process.

Where in mitochondria would you find ATP synthase?
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Cytosol
Outer mitochondrial membrane
Mitochondrial matrix

Inner mitochondrial membrane

Which of the following statements is true?
An N-terminal NLS is necessary, but not sufficient to trigger protein sorting to the nucleus
A nuclear localization signal at the 3' end of an mRNA, will trigger nuclear import of that mRNA
Stop transfer sequence

Signal sequences governing protein transport can be as short as 3 amino acids long

Unlike mitochondria, chloroplasts do not have a transporter that allows them to export ATP to the cytosol. How, then, do plant cells obtain the ATP that they need to carry out energy-requiring metabolic reactions in the cytosol? (7 points)

Plant cells have mitochondira which is working with the chloroplast to help supply ATP, as chloroplast do not have the transporters allowing them to export ATP to the cytosol. The sugar made within the chloroplast from photosynthesis (glyceraldehyde 3 pho

Which of the following compartments has a lower pH compared to other compartments and carries a positive charge along the membrane following oxidative phosphorylation?
Mitochondrial matrix
Outer mitochondrial membrane
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Intermem

Intermembrane space

Which of the following statements is true?
Vesicle fusion to its destination organelle requires adaptin molecules on the vesicle to bind to Rab on the destination membrane.
All transport vesicles in the cell must have a v-SNARE protein in their membrane.

All transport vesicles in the cell must have a v-SNARE protein in their membrane.