Withgott Chapter 8 Human Population

Human carrying capacity: Malthus

he concluded that eventually the human population size would exceed the food supply therefore reaching our carrying capacity


the study of human populations and population trends

population outputs

deaths + emigration

population inputs

births + immiration


the movement of people into a country or region, having come from another country or region


the movement of people out of a country or region, to settle in another country or region

Crude Birth Rate

CBR - the number of births per 1000 individuals per year

Crude Death Rate

CDR - the number of deaths per 1000 individuals per year

national population growth rate

(CBR + immigration) - (CDR + emigration) /10

Doubling time

the number of years it takes a population to double

Rule of 70

70/ % of growth rate =yrs

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

an estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years

Replacement-Level Fertility

the total fertility rate required to offset the average number of deaths in a population in order to maintain the current population size

Developed Countries

countries with relatively high levels of industrialization and income

Developing Countries

countries with relatively low levels of industrialization and income

Life Expectancy

the average number of years that an infant born in a particular year in a particular country can be expected to live, given the current average life span and death rate in that country

Infant Mortality Rate

the number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1000 live births

Child Mortality Rate

the number of deaths of children under age 5 per 1000 live births

Age Structure Diagrams

diagrams that show the numbers of individuals within each age category, typically expressed for males and females separately

Theory of Demographic Transition

the theory that as a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluence it undergoes a predictable shift in population growth

demographic transition: stage 1

the country experiences slow growth or no growth - high birth rates and high death rates

demographic transition: stage 2

rapid population growth - lower death rates, but birth rates still high

demographic transition: stage 3

population stabilization- families have less children

demographic transition: stage 4

population declines. less young, more old people.

Family Planning

the practice of regulating the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control


the state of having plentiful wealth; the possession of money, goods, or property

IPAT Equation

Represents the 3 major factors that influence the environment. Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology

Urban Area

an area that contains more than 385 people per square kilometer (1000 people per square mile)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

GDP - a measure of the value of all products and services produced in a country in a year