PYSC 4321

Researchers strategy for finding the answer to the research question is the...

research design

In a movie followed they followed the same ppl over seven years. This is

longitudinal study.

To "reify" a category is to

give reality to the category, although it is only a label, not a causal entity.

Why does Carson think that replacing DSM IV with an entirely new diagnostic system might be beneficial?

Science, not diagnostic history, could be the basis for disorders.

If you wished to look for possible tissue damage in a client's brain, which technique would be most appropriate?


collect necessary information in a standard way to allow for comparison with similar individuals.

The purpose of structured and semi-structured interviews is to

One important result of putting Late Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder (LLPDD) in the Appendix of DSM-III-R was

more researchers studied the disorder.

concurrent validity

helps establish comparison of two measures of the same phenomenon

essentially biological problems.

is how Kraepelin viewed psychological disorders a


Emily has been evaluated by three different professionals, each of whom offers a different diagnosis. She wonders whether the field has any standards because their judgments obviously lack

Why were intelligence tests originally developed?

to predict who is likely to succeed in school

A mental status exam involves

behavioral observation.

concurrent validity.

If you have developed a new diagnostic measure that is cheaper and quicker, but produces the same results as established measures, you can use it because it has

The purpose of a diagnostic system is to

aid communication among professionals, help determine a course of treatment, describe the client's behaviors.

A prognosis is based mostly upon

past outcomes of similar disorders.

the five axes

is an aspect of DSM-IV resembles a dimensional approach to nosology


I:acute stressor- mood/anxiety disorders
II:10 chronic personality disorders
III: physical conditions
IV:social stress, job/family/relationship
V: global assesment of functioning GAF-10,20 (0-100)

psychopathic deviation

is what you would expect a remorseless, seasoned criminal to score on which scale of the MMPI (no grey area)

false negative problem

damage that requires treatment may be overlooked.

false postitive

no neurological damage may be actually present.

Which of the following was a problem with DSM-III?

low reliabilities for some disorders

DSM-III was different from earlier attempts at classification of mental disorders because it

did not advocate any particular theory.

Which of the following approaches to nosology is most likely to be found in a medical setting?



is associated with the mental hygiene movement


is credited with first asserting forcefully that introspection has no place in psychology, and that the study of behavior should be scientific

Which of the following is not a common synonym for "psychological disorder"?


uman behavior, both normal and abnormal, is the result of biological, psychological, and social factors ___________________.



first called his therapy methods "behavior therapy

Which therapist is most likely to have substantial research training in the origins and treatments of behavior disorders?

a clinical psychologist

Prevalence data

To determine how much funding to allot for a particular disorder, you need to know how many people in your state are experiencing it

Humanistic psychology stresses the

growth of the individual.

A man in New York reports he has overcome his lifelong depression through a diet of chocolate and broccoli. He suggests that therapists like you should recommend this treatment for other depressed patients. As a psychologist, you would

disregard this approach due to the lack of scientific support.

a conditioned stimulus.

Tim owns a cat who licks her chops when she hears cellophane catfood packets being opened. This is not a skill she or her wild ancestors learned in the jungle. According to a classical conditioning account, the cellophane sound is

Which of the following clinical descriptions of a disorder would suggest the most favorable prognosis?

acute onset, time-limited course, high prevalence

If you are a person-centered therapist, which of these is NOT one of your major concerns?

exposing defense mechanisms

Etiology refers to


To call yourself a "psychotherapist" you need

some advanced training (M.A., M.S.W., CDC) and start saying "I'm a psychotherapist.

positive reinforcement

Whenever little Tommy leaves the refrigerator door open, his father yells at him. The yelling is unpleasant, but it's the only attention Tommy can get from him. And he leaves the door open more often. What motivates his "rebellion"?

______ is implicated in schizophrenia; _______ is implicated in depression.

dopamine; serotonin

The purpose of emotion is to

encourage us to action.

According to the studies of Baxter et al., psychological intervention for OCD

is capable of changing the brain structure.

The receptor for a neuron is the ________; the transmitter is the _________.

dendrite, axon

The HYPAC axis is implicated in several different psychological disorders. It involves the hypothalamus and the ____________ system.


Which of the following accurately illustrates the reciprocal gene-environment model of interaction?


A common media explanation of psychological disorder is "chemical imbalance," which is sometimes correct. In any case, this represents what model of causality?


the plane encounters severe turbulence and plunges into a power dive for several terrifying seconds. What section of your nervous system accounts for your reaction?



A frown would be an example of this aspect of emotion

Which part of the brain gives humans the capacity to think, plan, and reason?

cerebral cortex

A one-dimensional causal model

attributes a disorder to a single cause.

PKU is

a form of mental retardation caused by a defect in a particular gene.

treatment focusing on attributions is an example of

Beck's contribution to cognitive-behavioral therapy included

Our genetic makeup is like a(n)

set of boundaries.

Which is not attributed to serotonin?


You have just met someone who is uninhibited, impulsive, and overreactive to many events. If you believe brain chemistry is responsible for most behavior patterns, what would you suggest as the cause?

low levels of serotonin

Prozac is used mainly to treat


Autonomic nervous system

sympathetic: emergence/ alarm reaction
parasympathetic:restorative, calming (break system on heart & helps digest food)
endocrine: adrenal, pituitary, gonadal/sex, thyroid
HYPAC: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical-axis
adrenal gland-adrenal and cortis

Which of the following does NOT present a difficulty in attempts to study cross-cultural psychopathology?

Other cultures do not follow the scientific method.

adoption studies control for the effects of environmental influences.

is An advantage of adoption studies over family studies of the development of disorders is that


Groups of individuals of the same age at the same time in the same culture are called

an analog study.

Mary wants to know whether hospital patients get depressed because of the environment of the hospital. In her study, she has a group of healthy people live in a hospital for two weeks and assesses their levels of depression. This is an example of

An advantage of single-case experimental design over case studies, is

use of techniques to improve internal validity.

clinical significance.

The size of an experimental effect is most important when dealing with

n an experiment, a researcher varies the amount of food people get during the day and then looks for differences in the number of pages of a book they read in an hour. Variables such as body weight and reading experience might be ____________ in this expe


The term proband refers to

the individual who displays the trait examined in genetics family studies.

In one of your research experiments, you varied the amount of light exposure of rats to determine whether the rats would press a lever more with more light exposure. The dependent variable in this experiment was the

number of lever presses.

You have an idea you want to confirm or disconfirm by manipulating key variables in an experiment. That idea is called

a hypothesis.


This type of research involves the systematic manipulation of variables.

The directionality issue in correlation refers to

which factor causes the other to occur.

withdrawal design.


Sequential design involves

a blend of longitudinal and cross-sectional designs.

Which of the following is an advantage of longitudinal research over cross-sectional research?

no cohort effect