Psych Chapter 9

developmental psychology

study of how people change physically, mentally and socially through the lifespan.
psychologists investigate the biological, social, cultural, envt and behavioral factors

stages of the lifespan

prenatal-conception to birth
infancy and toddlerhood-birth to 2 years
early childhood-2 to 6 years
middle childhood-6-12 years
adolescence-12-18 years
young adult-18-40 years
middle adult-40-65 years
late adult-65 years to death

nature and nurture

interaction between envt and heredity


23 chromosome pairs of genetic makeup


harmful agents or substances that cause abnormal developement or birth defects
some such as cocaine, cigarette smoke, or alcohol can damage the developing fetus at any stage before birth

newborn's senses

keenly attuned to people
human face holds newborn's attention longer than any other object


inborn predispositions to consistently behave and react in a certain way

two thirds of babies

classified into one of three patterns: easy, difficult, and slow to warm up

one third of babies

average babies because they did not fit into one of the three categories


readily adapt to new experiences, positive moods and emotions, regular sleeping and eating patterns


intensely emotional, irritable and fussy, and cry alot

slow to warm up

low activity level, withdraw from new situations and people and adapt to new experiences very gradually

genetic and biological vs. envt

individual differences in temperament have this basis
envt experiences can modify a child's basic temperament


emotional bond that forms between the infant and her caregivers, especially parents

secure attachment

parents consistently warm, responsive, and sensitive to infants needs

insecure attachment

infants parents are neglectful, inconsistent or insensitive to moods or behaviors

strange situation

researchers measure attachment
use infants between 1 and 2 years old
baby and mother brought into unfamiliar room with toys
stranger enters room, mother eventually departs
after few minutes, mother returns, spends a few minutes in the room, leaves then re

secure attachment and preschoolers

tend to be more prosocial, empathic, and socially competent, than are preschoolers with insecure attachment

secure attachment and middle school

higher levels of social and cognitive development

secure attachment and adolescents

fewer problems, do better in school, have more successful relationships with their peers

cognitive development

thinking, remembering, and processing info

Jean Piaget with maturation

children actively try to make sense of their envt rather than passively soak up info in the world

4 cognitive stages

sensorimotor stages
preoperational stage
concrete operational stage
formal operational stage

sensorimotor stage

extends from birth until about two years of stage
infants acquire knowledge about the world through actions that allow them to directly experience and manipulate objects

object permanence

understanding that an object continues to exist even if it cant be seen

schemas/mental representation

develop mental representations of the word

preoperational stage

age 2-7 years
logical mental activities
engage in symbolic thought

symbolic thought

ability to use words, images, and symbols to represent the world


the inability to take another person's perspective or point of view


tendency to focus or center, on only one aspect of a situation and ignore other important aspects of the situations


inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations

concrete operations

around age 7
capable of true logical thought
can focus simultaneously on two aspects of a problem


holds that two equal physical quantities remain equal even if the appearance of one is changed as long as nothing is added or subtracted

formal operations

beginning of adolescence
more systematic and logical than the concrete operational child
reflects the ability to think logically along with abstract concepts or hypothetical situations

Lev Vygotsky

believed that cognitive development is strongly influenced by social and cultural factors
able to attain higher levels of cognitive development through support and instruction received from other people

zone of proximal development

gap between what children can accomplish on their own and what they can accomplish with the help of others that are more competent

parent and adolescent relationship

generally positive
most teenagers report that they look up to their parents and ask for advice
those who have a more positive relationship with parents are considered to have more self esteem and likely to follow parents guidance

peer relationships

reinforce traits and goals that parents fostered during childhood

traits and goals of peers

similar in age, social class, race, and beliefs about drinking, dating, church attendance and educational goals

Erikson's psychosocial development theory

trust vs. mistrust
autonomy vs. doubt
initiative vs. guilt
industry vs. inferiority
generativity vs. stagnation
ego integrity vs. despair


the values and beliefs that guide someone's behavior

trust vs. mistrust

positive-reliance on consistency and warm caregivers produces sense of predictability and trust in envt.
negative-physical and psychological neglect leads to fear, anxiety and mistrust of envt

autonomy vs. doubt

positive-encourage independence and self-sufficiency-promoting positive self esteem
negative-overly restrictive caregiving leads to self doubt in abilities and low self esteem

initiative vs. guilt

positive-learns to initiate activities and develop sense of social responsibility concerning rights of others-promotes self confidence
negative-parental overcontrol stifles the child's spontaneity, sense of purpose, and social learning, promotes guilt and

industry vs. inferiority

positive-experiences with parents and keeping up with peers, develops a sense of pride and competence in schoolwork, home and social activities
negative-negative experiences with parents and failure to keep up with peers leads to pervasive feelings of inf

generativity vs. stagnation

positive-through child rearing, caring for others, productive work, and community involvement, the adult expresses unselfish concern for the welfare of the next generation
negative-self indulgence, self absorption, and a preoccupation with one's own needs

ego integrity vs. despair

positive-overview of life, adult experiences strong sense of self acceptance and meaningfulness in accomplishments
negative-regret, dissatisfaction, disappointment about accomplishments

martial satisfaction

tends to decline after the birth of the first child
creates a whole new set of responsibilities, pushes and pulls on the relationship
not all relationships experience a decline after the birth of the first child
it rises again after the kids leave home

cognitive changes

these changes occur after the adult grows older and either can stimulate and not decline because of a person's growth and accomplishments or decline with age because they are dissatisfied with their lives

basic parenting styles


control and responsiveness

styles differ because parents need to have control, be authoritative but also let their children become their own human beings


demanding but unresponsive to their children's needs or wishes
believe they should shape and control their child's behavior so that it goes along with an absolute set of standards
obey rules-no questions asked


responsive, warm, and accepting of their children but impose few rules and rarely punish


both unresponsiveness and uncontrolling-result in child neglect


warm, responsive, and involved with their children
set clear standards for mature, age-appropiate behavior and expect their children to be responsive to demands
parents feel reciprocal responsibility to child's demands and points of view

authoritative parenting is associated

higher grades, lower rates of bad behavior and lower rates of substance abuse

authoritarian behavior is associated

rebellion and resentment, anxiety and aggression in children

permissive is associated

never learn self control, failing to reach full potential
affects some cultures in a good way