Psych 41 Exam 2

Frontal
(prefrontal cortex)

Researchers have found that in children from 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the _ lobe areas of the brain

2 hours

guidelines recommend that preschool children engage in _ of physical activity per day

preoperational

According to Piaget, in the _ stage, the young Childs cognitive world is dominated by egocentrism & magical beliefs

Can be mastered with guidance

Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky's term for the range of tasks difficult for a child to master but:

Mind

The theory of _ refers to awareness of one's own mental processes & the mental processes of others

wug test

tested morphological rules

both cognitive & socio-emotional development

Competent early childhood programs should focus:

initiative or guilt

According to Erik Erikson, the psychological stage that characterizes early childhood is:

75% of kids

have no problems after divorce

Hetero vs. same sex households

No difference in sexual preference

one

A recent recommendation stated that for children 2 to 4 years of age screen time should be limited to no more than _ hour per day

5-7 pounds & 2-3 inches

On average children gain _ pounds & grow _ inches per year during middle & late childhood

Leukemia

Which type of cancer is most prevalent in children

Cancer

2nd leading cause in death for children of this age (6-10/11)

3� more boys than girls

get diagnosed with disabilities

dyslexia

mix up letters

dyscalculia

difficulties in math

dysgraphia

writing difficulties

ADHD

Can't sit still

Autism Spectrum Disorder

can't develop language
difficult & narrow attention span

130
70

A child with an IQ of _ or higher is considered to be gifted, while a child with an IQ of _ or below with difficulty adapting to everyday life is considered to have an intellectual disability

phonics
whole-language

louse is teaching her son to read by telling him the sound that each alphabet stands for, which is the _ approach. His teacher teaches him to recognize the word, which is the _ approach

self-concept
self-esteem

_ refers to self-evaluation in the different domains of an individuals life, while _ refers to the way you feel about yourself

Self-efficacy

Albert Bandura states that _ is a critical factor in whether or not students achieve

Industry vs inferior

Erik Erikson's 4th stage of development appearing during middle & late childhood Called:

Industry

learn hard work pays off

Inferior

feel inferior to others & don't develop industry

Heteronomous

no accountability
on purpose

Autonomous

On purpose
taken into accountability

Based on gilligan

females - care / concern for others
males- based on justice system & individual rights
(according to Kohlberg)

Gender stereotypes

females- verbally aggressive
males - sport aggressive

Androgynous

Cassandra is assertive & nurturant. She could be described as:

growth

Individuals with a(n) _ mindset believe their qualities can change & improve through their effort

Heinz dilemma

stage 1: fear of punishment
stage 2: you do it they can do it back
stage 3: good boy good girl
stage 4: Must follow the law (set in stone)
stage 5: People have rights that transcend the law
Stage 6: Social contract
everyone is important
what is best for s

As children get older

they stop speaking out loud and start to private internal thoughts

Myelination

axons covered with layer of fat cells
increase Speed

Gross motor skills

Climbing, running

fine motor skills

writing

Egocentrism

Inability to see another persons perspective

Animism

Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities & are capable of action

Centration

Centering attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others

Authoritarian parenting

strict no explanations

Authoritative parenting

strict but gives explanation

Neglectful parenting

doesn't care

Indulgent parenting

Says no but parent will join child

Functional

Roll a car back & forth

Constructive

build tower

Parallel

stand side by side

Onlooker

Watching someone else play

Associative

sharing an item ex: crayons

Cooperative play

play with others ex: sports, board games

Concrete operational stage

A child understands conservation, but cannot use abstract reasoning yet, the child is most likely in which stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory?

Moral

_ development involves the development of thoughts, feelings, & behavior regarding rules & conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people

Identity

gender _ involves a sense of ones' own gender, including Knowledge, understanding, and acceptance of being male or female

gender roles

set of expectations, that prescribe how females & males should think, act, & feel are known as:

Nature of work

what is true of how parents' work affects the development of their children?