GEO 336 Exam 4


Europe's Post-WWI Economy

Defined by:
- Industrial-to-postindustrial shift: rebuild of industry
- Regional integration

Primary sector (1st)

(basic production) [extraction] agriculture, forestry, mining, fishery

Secondary sector (2nd)

(production of goods) [manufactoring] [value added] industrie, construction, craft

Tertiary sector (3rd)

(services) [activities that service peoples everyday needs and facilitate economic transactions] [delivering] healthcare, education, transportation, energy production, retailing, wholesaling, tourism, trade, bank, culture

Quaternary sector (4th)

collecting, processing, and manipulating of information and capital) banking, consulting, information processing, legal services --> part of the 3rd sector but are so important that a forth sector is made for them

Postindustrial sector (5th)

(information, data, and finance) rise of dominance of the Quaternary sector in Europe while the decline of the primary and secondary sectors took place


(Western Europe)
- Shift to tertiary and quaternary sectors
- Early 1900s Europe was still in an industrial era but starting in the 1950s we see this shift to postindustrial

East-West disparities

(Eastern Europe) due to the Soviet Union and communism, they went through the secondary-to-service cycle after Western Europe did instead of at the same time

4 post-WWII catalyze to the shift:

- Rising labor costs in Europe
- Declining transportation costs
- Mechanization of the production process
- Expanding trade
The European trade became more and more sucessful, the workers began to make more as the gained more rights and protection as

Ways to fight back the shift

- Mechanization (as response and as further push): to make things cheaper and more efficient, but people lost their jobs
- Financial expertise: needed to be able to handle 3rd and 4th sectors when improving technologies
- Managerial expertise: needed to b

Plate Glass University

Emergence of postwar, the University of York's Central Hall


- Europe has great telecommunications including: computers, computer data exchange, email, telefax, and cellular phone services
- Was extremely rapid in the 1990s and early 2000s
- Per capita internet use is highest in Northern Europe and lower in Eastern

Cell Phone Ownership & Usage Rates

- Europe has one of the highest Cell Phone Ownership & Usage Rates in the world

Cell Phone Disparities

The price for Mobil internet disparities by sub-region and country. Ukraine is less than $1 per 1GB and Greece is the most expensive. Norway and Portugal are also not cheap.

Energy Usage & Standard-of-living Linkages

- Europeans, just like Americans, consume large amounts of energy to have a high standard-of-living
- This created a high service industry to supply all this power

Post-war Coal-to-petroleum/gas Transition

- Coal was a lead supplier of this power up until 1950s when consumption levels in Western Europe began to rise above any expectation, therefore petroleum and natural gas took over
- In western and Southern Europe, oil had to be imported, placing european

Historic Shocks Underscore Levels of Dependency

- Western Europe, OPEC in 1973: The sharp oil price increase instigated the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) sent shock ways through Western Europe and htroughout the Midwest and parts of the United States as well.
----> led to ----->

Push for Energy Alternatives

***problem of foreign dependencies
- Hydroelectric
- Wind: Denmark pioneered the effort to harness the westerly winds, now thousands of turbines boarder the Northern Sea. 6 of the top 10 countries to use wind are all in Europe... Germany Spain, UK, Italy,

Europe's rise of nuclear energy

- The UK put the very first nuclear power plant online in 1956, followed by France in 1958, and West Germany in 1961.
- As of 2012, the top five countries with the greatest reliance to nuclear power were all European
- France gets 75% of its power from nu

nuclear industry trends

- post-Chernobyl declines: most countries stopped building new plants
- revivals in 2000s: created a second look into nuclear energy when concern grew about fossil fuels effect on climate change
- declines following 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi disaster in Jap

Europes Energy outlook

Europes Energy outlook on to the future is still very unclear. Lots of inconsistencies despite shared challenges amongst countries.

Tourism (20th century)

- Sector of growth in the economy... why employment in the service sector has grown so much
- Post-WWII boom after 1950 and 1965
- Europeans love touring other parts of Europe

Tourism Patterns

- Sources, destinations, flows: tourism displays very vivid geography... most tourism is done wealthy people from northern and Western Europe and they usually go to the South of Europe
- Mediterranean & Spanish examples: Spain has the most resorts, and to

Tourism Vulnerabilities

- Tourisms short come is for sure extreme vulnerability
- EX: economic downturns and political unrest

Tourism Flows

- Channelized flows: tourist flows to beach resorts tend to be channelized, 2/3 of vacationers in Malta come from the UK because the island used to be apart of the British colony
- Highland-lowland flows: from low land to highland like the alps

Rural destinations

- 1/4 of all tourist in Europe seek out Rural areas for vacations
- Lots of farmers host vacationers in summer lodges (40%)

Cultural tourism

- lots of cultural tourism
- directed to museums (especially ones with mid-evil or renaissance), theatrical or music festivals, science fairs


Traditional farmsteads in
Stockholm's pioneering open-air museum known as Skansen

tour vs. holiday tourism

- Europeans are unlikely to travel one place after another
- A tour differs from a holiday, europeans prefer to ladder a holiday and to get from home to the desired destination as fast as possible
- Once at destination they send the whole holiday there, m

vacation homes

- came from the love of country sides
- made of modest cottages or old farm homes
- river valley of france has become a favorite for British vacationers
- lots owned by germans and brits
- Dacha: In Eastern Europe where vacationing is less popular, a cott

spa or health tourism

- lots of health resort in Germany and France
- "taking the waters on"
- citizens can get treatment at government expense for real or imaginary things
- can treat lungs, kidneys, joints, stomach, etc.

impacts of integration

- remove of political barriers has helped create lots of tourist flow
- tourism can have both negative and positive impacts
- Alps: as late as 1955 of poverish but then mass tourism came in and its struggling economy switch from relying on farming to bein


the Zack efforn type of tourism, kind of bare bones, argilogical where not a lot of the environment is changed

retailing geographies & government/state services

- retailing geographies: largest in wealthy or tourist areas
- governmental/social services: good paying

quaternary sector pt 2

(processing info)
- clustering: the services are highly clustered into Europes inner core geologically
- France, Britain, Germany
- London's preeminence: London and Paris is huge with the 4th sector, London is financial leader / great economy
- informatio

integration & its origins

- started in 1950s after WW2
- postindustrial
- economic integration would pave the way for political integration
- widening/deepening: the process of the growing power these countries had economically and politically
- 6 periods of integration
- Brussels

1960s mergers

- European Community (EC): focused on atomic energy and coal and steel to form European communities
- the success that the EC was experiencing brought on three new countries: Demark, UK, and Irland


- Recession: period was marked by this recession
- Non-tariff barriers
- Greece's entry: became a new member


- Single European Act: became a single economic space and eliminated non-tariff barriers
- Schengen Agreement: eliminated boarder controls between participating countries, changed the way europeans looked at nation states


- Spain & Portugal: further territorial expansion with the addition of Spain & Portugal
- German reunification: East Germany came into fold with an enlarging of Germany in 1990


- Maastricht Treaty ? EU: period started with this signing, the EC was changed into the EU......the treaty institutionalized greater cooperation with law enforcement, judicial matters, and immigration, gave greater power to parliament, expanded EU's role


- 2004 expansion: 8 new member states with 2 more in 2007
- economic impacts: hard to determine the exact impact that integration has had on the economy, but we do know that in the early stages getting rid of tariff trade barriers spurred the allowance to

institutional questions

After crisis...
- wanted banking union
- wanted common fiscal policy
- not possible with grown individualism

integration as incentive for change/reforms

the criteria that countries had to fit to join the EU was an incentive for change/reforms

Europe's cities

- can be defined by permanence, size, density, employment (nonagricultural), and occupational specialization (sometimes only in cities but grew over time), governance, public projects/works/services, education & innovation
- can be looked at as Population

morphology & scale

- morphology: cities and urban development thur time is assessed by morphology.... e.g. cultural, landscape, forms and layers etc.
- note that there is a scale

diffusions�in forms & functions

**urban diffusion did not follow same north west path that brought languages, christianity, and agriculture
- mercantile city: trade, European urban city prior to the 18th and 19th century
- administrative centers: significant role of city
- religious sit

Greek city-states

- greeks were the first to adopt urban cities and did it through city states
- first ones were very small
- included walls, theater, market place etc
- Morphology: greatest city happened in golden age 1800bc probably Called Athens
- Acropolis: "highest/up

Greek colonial cities

- products of planning
- weren't built around all structure but created something new
- they would lay out a grid of streets that would shape the development of the city
- interest in geometry led them the adapt a north south street pattern
- no specific

Roman cities & urbanization

Romans were influenced by greeks and atruskins
- Focus of central Italy, Greece, and Andaluc�a
- rectilinear street patterns and planned
- plazas: central plazas were common

post-Roman urban decline

- set in after Romes fall
- abandoned buildings created eroding stone that people then used for walls or cottages

Medieval resurgence (9th to 14th centuries)

Urban Europe shifted to new regions
- urbanization in Po Valley & North European plain: political stability, rich agriculture, geo-economic advantages... Northern Italy could capture trade and take advantage of Po River..... the low country or the rilands

North European plain

- castles (i.e. political stability) ? secure markets ? trade ? economic networks
- merchant colonies & artisans
- elements of typical town morphology: Feudal fortress, marketplaces, merchant residences, churches, & farmhouses

urban site selection

Defensibility & attributes:
- river meander: most of city is surrounded and protected but river stream except on little neck --> exs. of Besan�on & Toledo
- narrow sea entrances: river islands (Paris and Limerick), lake islands (Stockholm), offshore islan

trade considerations�& transportation

- river fords: before bridges were common, these were places for establishing settlement or urbanization where the steam was shallow and the bed was firm, EX: Frankfurt & Oxford
- bridges
- confluence: where rivers meet, EX: Koblenz
- head-of-navigation s

NW Europe's medieval cities typically had:

- charter: high tower that holds or represents the freedoms of the city
- town & city walls: self government required self defense
- marketplace: trading houses/halls and trading fairs

northern Italian cities & Roman origins (43:45)

- exception of Venice:

Medieval cities

- most modest size, exceptions were Paris and Naples who were over 100,000 by 1400
- distinctive morphologies: street patterns was irregular included centrality of church, market & civic buildings, also had walls
- Southern Europe exceptions had grids ins


- major decline in incidence of founding new cities (except for Northern Europe)
- 1500-1800 main developments: national capital cities (particularly in Western Europe), dynamic growth of some cities, development of public projects, imperial associations