PHARMACOLOGY

enalapril classification
Major side effect that should be reported immediately

ACE inhibitor -pril
angioedema- swelling of the tongue

Clozapine- classification
Major side effect that should be prioritized

antipsychotic
agranulocytosis - increases the risk of infection (sore throat, feverish)

Rosuvastatin (Crestor) classification
Serious adverse effect

statin drug
rhabdomyolosis- can cause muscle aches and weakness

therapeutic aPTT level - heparin
high aPTT do what?

46-70 seconds
stop infusion and notify the HCP and review guidelines for administration of protamine

what is the reversal medication for warfarin?
heparin?

warfarin- vitamin k
heparin- protamine

Duloxetine (Cymbalta) - fibromyalgia
classification
what is its use?

SSRI
pain

Normal digoxin levels

0.5-2.0

normal INR levels

2.5-3.5

therapeutic lithium levels

0.6-1.2

Normal phenytoin levels

10-20

Donepezil is used to treat what?

Alzheimers

Chlorpheniramine treats what?

allergies- sedating histamine H1 antagonist

Metronidazole (flagyl) can have what affect on urine?
use?
Abstain from?
SEs?

antibiotic; C. diff
alcohol
turn urine a dark, brownish color temporarily; metallic taste

what drug can cause cardiovascular side effects, including heart attack, stroke, high BP and HF from fluid retention
- which med to not take with a history of HTN

NSAIDs like ibuprofen

Sidenafil:
Use:
Do not use with what other medications?

1. erectile dysfunction
2. nitrates

Esompeprazole:
Classification:
Check what?

1. PPI
2. bone density

Amitryptylline:
Classification:
SE:

1. tricyclic antidepressant
2. dry mouth
orthostatic hypotension
urinary retention
suicidal thoughts

Warfarin:
Meds to avoid?

aspirin and naproxen

Isotretinoin:
Also called?
Teach what?

1. Accutane
2. to take 2 types of contraception

Donepezil:
Use?
Take when?
SE?

Alzheimer's "DONE with life"
at bed
GI bleed, bradycardia, syncope

Memantine:
Use?

Alzheimer's
"MEMory

Enalapril:
Classification:
SE:

1. ACE inhibitor (-pril)
2. angioedema (tongue swelling); persistent cough with sore throat; hyperkalemia

Duloxetine (Cymbalta):
Classification:
Use:

1. SSRI
2. pain

Rosuvastatin:
Classification:
SE:
Take when?
check what?

1. statin drug
2. rhabdomyolysis (m. weakness)
3. with evening meal
4. ALT - liver

Clozapine:
Classification:
SE:

1. antipsychotic
2. agranulocytosis - increased risk of infection; hypercholesteremia - cause cause an increased in lipids

Ethambutol:
Use:
Check what?

1. TB
2. eyes

Rifampin:
Use:

TB

Clonidine:
Use:
Patch- put where:
SE:

1. antihypertensive
2. on hairless part of body
3. dry mouth

Orlistat:
Classification:
Vitamins taken when?
Take when (meals):

1. lipase inhibitor
2. taken >2 hours after taking the medication
3. within 1 hour of meals with fat- can skip if no fat

Omeprazole:
Classification:
Check what?
Risk for?
Use?

1. PPI
2. bone density
3. C. diff
4. long-term GERD; prevents stomach ulcers

Phenytoin:
Classification:
SE:

1. anticonvulsant
2. unsteady or dizzy; gingival hyperplasia

Serotonin Syndrome:
S/S?

1. mental status change
2. hyperthermia
3. diaphoresis
4. tachycardia
5. HTN
6. tremor
7. m. rigidity
8. clonus
9. hyperreflexia
(HYPER)

3 types of insulin - explained

1. Basal (long-acting)
-glargine
-detemir
-degludec
SUBQ
(1x day)
(18-24 hr duration)
2. Basal intermediate-acting
-NPH
(2x day)
SUBQ
3. Postprandial (short-acting)
- Regular Peak (2-5 hr) IV use- ketoacidosis
-Lispro; aspart; glucisine (.5-3 hr); after m

Erythropoieten (EPO):
Use:
SE:
Helps with what?
Discontinue when?

1. chronic kidney disease
2. HTN
3. helps with production of RBC
4. when hemoglobin >11

Bumetanide:
Classification:
Do not give when?

1. loop diuretic
2. hypokalemia

Isoniazid:
Use:
SE:

1. TB drug
2. yellow skin tones

Albuterol and Ipratropium:
Classification:
SE:

1. SABA - quick relief
2. tachycardia

Beclomethasone:
Classification:

ICS
long-term

Use albuterol or beclomethasone first?

Albuterol --> beclomethasone

Lithium:
Use:
Toxicity S/S:
Do not take what other medication?

1. Bipolar
2. dehydration; hyponatremia; decreased renal function; stomach flu s/s
3. ibuprofen

Filgrastim:
Use:
Monitor what?

1. stimulate neutrophil production- use during chemo
2. neutrophil count

Tiotropium:
Use:
SE:

1. maintenance asthma therapy
2. xerostomia

Budenoside:
Use:

maintenance asthma therapy

Montelukast:
Use:
SE:

1. asthma long-term and long-term allergies
2. depression; behavior changes; hallucinations; suicidal ideation

Oxybutynin:
Use:
SE:

1. urinary incontinence
2. dry mouth; dry eyes; blurred vision

Chloridazepoxide: (-pam) drugs:
Classification:
Use:
Give when?

1. benzo
2. delirium tremens; anxiety
3. at night
(PAM goes to bed at night)

Ranitidine:
Use:
SE:

1. gastric ulcers- inhibits gastric acid secretion
2. hepatotoxicity- jaundice

Nitroglycerin Patch:
Use:
When to take off patch?

1. angina
2. after dinner; keep off for 12-14 hrs before new patch

Buproprion:
Classification:
Use:
SE:

1. atypical antidepressant
2. quit smoking
3. insomnia; agitation; tremors; mania; decreased seizure threshold

Propylthiouracil:
Classification:
Use:

1. thyroid hormone antagonist
2. Grave's disease (hyperthyroidism); can help with focusing, restlessness and manic behaviors

Cromolyn:
Classification:
Use:

1. mast cell stabilizer
2. exercise-induced asthma; long-term

Mannitol:
Classification:
SE:
Use:

1. osmotic diuretic
2. crackles in lungs
3. Cushing's

Ergotamine:
Use:
Take when?

1. HA
2. onset of HA

Sumatriptan:
Classification:
Use:
SE:

1. selective serotonin agonist
2. migraine HA by constricting cranial blood vessels
3. HTN (constricting blood vessels)

Metoclopramide:
Classification:
Use:
SE:

1. central dopamine antagonist
2. increases GI motility and prevents nausea
3. sedation

Buspirone:
Use:
SE:

1. generalized anxiety disorder
2. dizziness

Carbidopa/Levodopa:
Use:
Teaching?
SE:

1. Parkinson's
2. change positions slowly; takes weeks for effects
3. urine and saliva may turn reddish/brown

Cyclobenzaprine:
Classification:
Metabolized where?
Do not give if the person has?

1. centrally acting skeletal m. relaxant
2. hepatically
3. hepatitis

Acetazolamide:
Use:
SE:

1. open-angle glaucoma
2. tingling of fingers
(A and A) Angle and Aceta

Clindamycin:
Classification:
SE:

1. antibiotics
2. watery diarrhea; can cause C. diff

Ketorolac:
Use:
SE:

1. pain
2. increase risk of bleeding

Amphotericin B:
Classification:
Use:
SE:

1. antifungal
2. fungal infections
3. oliguria

Prednisone:
Classification:
Use:
Check what?

1. steroid
2. Lupus
3. bone density; osteoporosis

Ciprofloxacin:
Classification:
Use:
CI:

1. antibiotic
2. UTI
3. tendonitis - can cause rupture

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole:
Use:
Food or water?

1. infections
2. take with water; do not take with food

Carbazepine:
Classification:
Do not take with what other medication?

1. anticonvulsant
2. do not take with oral contraceptives

Verapamil:
Use:
SE:

1. HTN and angina
2. orthostatic hypotension

Diclofenac:
Classification:
Use:
Food?

1. NSAID
2. chronic bursitis
3. yes, take with food

Paclitaxel:
Use:
Report what?

1. CA
2. bradycardia

Acetaminophen Overdose S/S

1. diaphoresis
2. abdominal discomfort
3. increased ALT

Somatropin:
Use:
Monitor what?

1. growth hormone deficiency
2. height and weight monthly

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate:
Use:

hyperkalemia

Metformin:
Use:
CI:

1. DM
2. Alcohol use disorder

Tamoxifen:
Use:
Monitor:
SE:

1. breast CA
2. calcium
3. pulmonary embolus; menstrual irregularities (bleeding); hot flashes

Didanosine:
Use:

Didanosine
He DID that

Androgen therapy:
Use:
SE:

1. endometriosis
2. edema

Zidovudine:
Classification:
SE:

1. antiretroviral
2. aplastic anemia

Finasteride:
Use:
SE:

1. benign prostatic hypertrophy
2. decreased libido
I'm struggling to FINish

Leuprolide:
Use:

prostate CA
leuPROlide and PROstate

Phenylephrine:
Use:

pre-op to dilate pupils

Alteplase:
Use:
Administer when?
Reconstitute?
Give how much of a bolus?
Assess for?
CI:

1. dissolves existing clots
2. administer within 30 min. of arriving
3. yes, in sterile water
4. 15 mg
5. back pain
6. cerebral AV malformation

Ondansetron:
Use:
SE:

1. nausea
2. HA

Ferrous Sulfate:
Use:
Take when?

1. anemia
2. between meals

Magnesium Sulfate:
Monitor what?

respiratory status

Levothyroxine:
Use:
Therapeutic results:
Don't take with what condition?

1. hypothyroidism
2. improved energy; normal HR; mood elevation
3. Cancer

Cephalexin:
Classification:
Do what with it?

1. antibiotic
2. refrigerate

Glucocorticoids:
long term can cause what?

compression fractures from osteoporosis

Pyrazinamide:
Use:
Take with what?

1. TB
2. water

Cyclosporine:
Use:
Take with what?

1. RA
2. calcium (milk); meals

Hyperkalemia- what meds to take?

Kayexalate - make sure to monitor bowel function because it can cause bowel necrosis
Sudden: IV 50% dextrose and regular insulin

Sucralfate:
Use:
Do not take with what other meds?

1. barrier for stomach
2. gastric meds

Selegiline:
Classification:
CI with what other meds?

1. MAOI
2. do not take with SSRIS (-pram)

Saw Palmetto use:

prostatic hyperplasia

St. John's Wort use:
SE:

depression
can prolong sedation

Black Cotosh use:

hot flashes

Hawthorn use:

HF

Estradiol:
Use:
SE:

1. estrogen
2. HA

Ziprasidone:
Classification:
SE:

1. atypical antipsychotic
2. widened QT intervals and hypotension

Doxorubicin:
Use:
SE:

1. breast CA
2. thrombocytopenia and increased risk of bleeding

Valproic Acid:
Use:
Monitor:

1. seizures; bipolar
2. liver enzymes- jaundice

Risperidone:
Use:
SE:

1. schizo
2. unsteady; fall precautions

Amoxicillin/Clavulanate suspension:
Do what with med:
Report what?
Store where?

1. shake
2. diarrhea
3. refrigerator

Ginseng:
Use:
CI:

1. HTN
2. -lol drugs

Herbal supplements that increase the risk of bleeding

1. garlic
2. ginger
3. ginkgo biloba

Chlorpromazine:
Use:

antipshychotic; decreases hallucinations

Vit. B6:
take if taking what other med?
Helps with what?

1. isoniazid for TB
2. peripheral neuropathy

Mafenide Acetate:
Use:
Causes what?
Contains:
Eradicates what?

1. burns (antibiotic)
2. pain
3. sulfonamide
4. Pseudo. aeruginosa

Progestin-Only Pills (POP):
inactive pills?
if taken late do what?

1. no
2. use another form of contraception (barrier)

Atropine:
Use:

decrease HR and secretions

Tetracycline:
Classification:
take with food?
Avoid what?
take with?
SE:

1. antibiotic
2. no, take on empty stomach
3. antacids and dairy
4. water
5. photosensitivity

Potassium Chloride:
Use:
CV give how fast? PV?

1. hypokalemia
2. CV: 40; PV: 10

Growth Hormone Replacement:
Given how:
Given when?

1. subq
2. given as early as possible

Metoclopramide:
Use:
SE:

1. GERD
2. tardive dyskinesia
-protruding and twisting of tongue
-puffing of cheeks
-chewing movements
-frowning or blinking of eyes
-twisting of fingers
-twisted or rotated neck

Silver Sulfadiazine:
Use:
SE:

1. burns
2. causes leukopenia; forms sulfa crystals in urine

Nabilone:
Use:
SE:

1. cancer- helps with N/V during chemo
2. dizziness; distorted thinking; hallucinations

Valsartan:
Use:

HF; can help with angioedma from a ACE

Haloperidol:
Use:
SE:

1. schizo
2. dysrhythmias; glaucoma; hepatitis; urinary retention and dry mouth (anticholinergic effects)

Allopurinol:
Use:
Teaching?

1. prevent gout
2. water intake to prevent renal stones and promote diuresis

Methylphenidate (Ritalin):
Classification:
Use:
SE:

1. amphetamine
2. ADHD
3. weight loss and decreased appetite; HTN and increased HR; vocal/motor tics; restlessness and insomnia; abuse potential