Unit 4 - Migration

bracero program

1942 - US government program to encourage Mexicans to come to the US as contract laborers, which guaranteed them a certain wage/housing

refugee camps

temporary settlements set up to house people who had to flee their homeland because of war/civil unrest/oppression


money that migrants send back to their family/friends in their home countries to support them

reverse remittances

money that a family sends to a migrant in a different country to support them


the act of leaving a place in the process of migration


the act of entering a place in the process of migration

cyclic movement

movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually/seasonally

periodic movement

temporary/extended amount of time and irregular relocation


form of movement that is a permanent change in residence

activity space

space where someone's daily activity occurs


a type of cyclic movement that is movement along a definite set of places. a traditional way of life that where people move from one place to another


seasonal movement of sheep/cattle farmers/ranchers (pastoralists) between pastures in different areas to stay in areas that have resources for the animals


a type of migration that goes across country borders


a type of migration within country borders


a type of migration that is imposed upon people because of an authority/person in power


type of migration when the migrant chooses to move (even if desperately)

human trafficking

form of forced migration where criminals move people illegally for them to work as slaves/sex workers usually

laws of migration

these are the 5 rules by Ernst Ravenstein about how migration works


type of migration that occurs in stages

intervening opportunity

something that stops a migrant from continuing step migration/makes sites farther away less attractive to migrate to

distance decay

effect of distance between places and their interaction. greater distance = less interaction

gravity model

shows the prediction of interaction between places based upon their population and distance between each other

push factors

things that make a migrant want to leave their home

pull factors

things that make a migrant want to move to a certain place


a government sending a migrant back to their home country

kinship links

a type of push/pull factor that influences a migrant's decision to go where family/friends have already gone & found success

chain migration

flow among kinship links

immigration wave

chains of migration built upon each other


physical process of a foreign entity taking over another place - putting its own govt in charge, bringing its own people in, etc

guest workers

legal immigrants with a work visa - usually short term

islands of development

place built by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment, with a high concentration of high paying jobs & infrastructure


Soviet Union tried to get people to move from Moscow/Saint Petersburg to other places throughout USSR to promote a single Russian identity as a country


a person with a well-founded fear of persecution due to their race, religion, nationality, membership of a certain group, or political opinion" a person who has to flee persecution/a crisis

internally displaced person

a person displaced within their own country


right to protection in the first country a refugee arrives in


process of returning refugees to their homelands when the crisis ends


acts committed with intent to destroy in whole or in part a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group

immigration laws

laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state

selective immigration

process to control immigration which individuals with certain backgrounds aren't allowed to immigrate