the layer of gases that surrounds Earth
the lowest layer of the atmosphere, air movement drives planet's weather
The second-lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere.
Protective layer in atmosphere that shields earth from UV radiation.
less dense warm air rises and creates vertical currents- as it rises into areas of lower atmospheric pressure it expands and cools, once it cools it descends and becomes denser and replaces the rising warm air
the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
Describes typical patterns of atmospheric conditions in a location over years, decades, centuries, or millennia
atmospheric condition in which warm air traps cooler air near the earth's surface
the band of air in which temperature rises with altitude
gases and particulate material added to the atmosphere that can affect climate or harm people or other organisms
the release of air pollutants
Outdoor air pollution
Air pollution outside of living or working spaces, especially buildings.
Pollutants released directly from a source
pollutants that are formed by the combination of primary pollutants in the atmosphere.
The amount of time a substance spends in the atmosphere
Clean Air Act
Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants
A colorless, odorless gas that occurs as a by-product of fuel combustion that may result in death in poorly ventilated areas
Colorless gas with pungent odor. a gas produced by coal burning which increases the acidification of rain water
Major source is auto exhaust. Primary and secondary effects include acidification of lakes, respiratory irritation, leads to smog and ozone. Reduced using catalytic converters.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
carbon-containing compounds that pass easily into the vapor phase
Composed of solid or liquid particles small enough to be suspended in the atmosphere
A heavy metal that enters the atmosphere as a particular pollutants
chemically convert or physically remove pollutants before they leave smokestacks
pollutants judged to pose especially great threats to human health
a foul-smelling reddish brown gas, produced primarily by the incomplete combustion of fuel, that contributes to smog and acidic deposition.
a secondary pollutant created by the reaction of nitrogen oxides and volatile carbon-containing chemical in the presence of sunlight
General term for an unhealthy mixture of air pollutants that can accumulate as a result of fossil fuel combustion, generally over industrial regions or urban areas with heavy automobile traffic
found in cities that burn large amounts of coal
Forms when sunlight drives chemical reactions between primary pollutants and atmospheric compounds
human-made chemicals that destroy ozone
human-made compounds derived from simple hydrocarbons in which hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogen atoms such as chlorine, bromine, or fluorine
Type of halocarbons that are useful as refrigerants
A thinning of stratospheric ozone that occurs over the poles during the spring
phase out of ozone depleting substances.
Deposition of acidic or acid-forming pollutants from the atmosphere onto Earth's surface
acid deposition that takes place through rain
The wet or dry deposition on land of a wide variety of pollutants, including mercury, nitrates, organochlorines, and others.
indoor air pollution
Occur in workplaces, schools, and homes. Outweighs those from outdoor air pollution