Encyclopedia of Counseling: Set #1

John Bowlby's name is most closely associated with

Bonding and attachment.

Freud and Erickson

could be classified as maturationists

The Zone of Proximal Development

was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky.

According to Kohlberg, level 3, which post conventional or self-accepted moral principles

is the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level.

Kohlberg's highest level or morality is termed post conventional morality. Here the individual

has self-imposed moral and ethics.

Kohlberg's second level or morality is known as conventional morality. This level is characterized by

a desire to live up to society's expectations, a desire to confirm.

In Kohlberg's first or preconventional level, the individual's moral behavior is guided by


A person who has successfully mastered Erickson's first seven stages would be ready to enter Erickson's final or eighth stage,

integrity versus despair.

Trust versus mistrust is

Erik Erickson's first stage of psychosocial development.

Kohlberg's three levels of mortality are

preconvential, conventional, and post conventional.

The term identity crisis comes from the work of


The Heinz story is to Kohlberg's theory as

a typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.

Lawrence Kohlberg suggested

three levels of morality. (Preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.)

During a thunderstorm, a 6 year-old child in Piaget's stage of preoperational thought (stage 2) says, "The rain is following me." This is an example of


According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operations or concrete operational thought. This notion suggests

one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape.

Lawrence Kohlberg

expanded on Piaget's conceptualization of moral development.

A child masters conservation in the Piagetian stage known as

concrete operations-ages 7 to 11.

In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refer to

volume or mass.

A tall skinny pitcher of water is emptied into a small squatty pitcher. A child indicates that she feels the small pitcher has less water. The child has not yet mastered


Some behavioral scientists have been critical of the Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget's developmental research inasmuch as

his findings were often derived from observing his own children.

Jean Piaget's theory has four stages. The correct order from stage 1 to stage 4 is

sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations.

The statement, "the ego is dependent on the id," would most likely reflect the work of

Sigmund Freud

The only psychoanalyst who created a developmental theory which encompasses the entire life span was

Erik Erickson

In Freudian theory instincts are emphasized. Erick Erickson is an ego psychologist. Ego psychologists

believe in man's powers of reasoning to control behavior.

Freud's stages are psychosexual while Erik Erickson's stages are