Southwestern Asia (Middle East) Lecture Notes (PowerPoint Notes)

What are some economies of Southwest Asia?

Libya is a developing country.
Most of its economy is focused on oil refining
UAE is a developing country

What are some economies of Southwest Asia (continued)?

Israel is a developed economy
Most of its labor force works in the tertiary sector, generating most of the country's GDP
Israel and Turkey are the two most developed countries in the Middle East

What are the religions of Southwestern Asia (Middle East)?

The Middle East is an Islamic practicing country
Most countries practice Sunni Islam
Iran, Iraq, and Bahrin practice Shiite Islam
Israel was a country created for the Jewish population after WWII, is the largest Jewish practicing country
Iran is the large

What is one border dispute in Southwestern Asia (Middle East)?

Egypt and Sudan are fighting over a territory known as the Hala'ib Triangle
Egypt and Sudan were both former British colonial claims
Britain left the region, it was decided to divide the countries at the 22nd line of latitude
Sudan occupies a territory No

What is the 22nd line of latitude (Border Dispute continued)?

Any territory North of this line would belong to Egypt
Any territory South would belong to Sudan

What happened with Egypt?

Egypt argues that this region along the Red Sea is illegally occupied by Sudan

What happened in Morocco and Western Sahara (border dispute)?

For a number of years, Morocco suspended its ties with the African Union (AU) as the AU supported Western Sahara's claim for statehood.
The Sawahi people wanted statehood
Morocco is a country while Western Sahara is a nation without a state (they want sta

What happened in Iran and the United Arab Emirates (3rd border dispute)?

Iran and the United Arab Emirates are disputing an important island in the Persian Gulf, Abu Musa.
Abu Musa, was seized by Iran in 1971, awarding more control and influence in the Persian Gulf

What happened in Ceuta and Melilla (4th Border dispute)?

Ceuta and Melilla are between Spain and Morocco
Ceuta and Melilla are the most logical points of entry
Based on the number of migrant cramps on the outsides of the border

How will they enforce security and immigration policies (Spain)?

Built a 20 foot fence
Added wire netting at the base of these fences
Added a secondary fence for added security
Added Security cameras
Increased the number of lookout posts

What happened in 2014 with Spain (border dispute between Ceuta and Melilla)?

Spain pressured Morocco to assist with its border security efforts
Morocco agreed to help
How?
Disrupting migrant camps (riding camps)
Doubled down on security by adding fences with barbed wire on their side

What happened in Israel and Palestine (5th border dispute)?

Israel is a country while Palestine is a nation without a state (Palestinian people want independence)
In prior years, Palestinians have been promised statehood

What are some political issues in the Middle East (Kurdistan)?

Kurdistan is a nation without a state (the Kurds want statehood)
Kurdistan is situated within four countries: Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Turkey
The Kurds represent about 9.8% of the regional population

What are some political issues in the Middle East (continued)?

The Kurds continue to be a focal point in the geopolitics of the Middle East
Rojava, an area in Northern Syria, contains a large Kurdish population

What is the population of the Middle East?

Population is sparsely populated
This driven mostly by climate
Some countries are seeing a population increase (Israel, Iran and Egypt)

What are some population issues in the Middle East?

Social opportunities for women are limited in the Middle East
The Middle East has the lowest female literacy rate in the world

What happened in North Africa (lecture notes) ?

North Africa was colonized by the French
Libya was colonized by the Italians.
The Sahara Desert is the largest desert in the world
Two major geophysical features: the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara Desert

What happened in Tunisia (lecture notes)?

It was the first country to enter the Arab Springs

What happened in Libya (lecture notes)?

Libya was the third country to enter the Arab Spring.
ISIS has a major cell in Libya
With the overthrow of Gaddafi, Libya transitioned into a failed state, the newest in the world

What happened in Morocco (lecture notes)?

Morocco is home to the largest solar farm in the world, Noor Ouarzazate
Roughly 3,500 football fields
Largest illicit producer of majurinana.
The United States is the largest producer

What happened in the Nile River Delta (lecture notes)?

Home to Egypt, Sudan, and South Sudan
Region colonized by the British
Home to the Nile River, the longest river

What happened in Egypt (lecture notes)?

Egypt is politically unstable
The 3rd largest recipient of US Aid
Only Israel and Afghanistan receive more US aid
Second country to enter the Arab Springs, resulting in the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak as autocratic leader

What happened in Arab Southwest Asia (lecture notes)?

Known as the Cradle of Human Civilization
This region is the largest oil producing sub-region in the world
This subregion is associated with our most serious security threat, ISIS (Islamic State)
Many economies are too focused on oil

What happened in United Arab Emirates (Lecture notes)?

UAE is home to Dubai
UAE signed a peace agreement with Israel in 2020
UAE, Bahrain, Egypt, and Jordan are the only Middle East countries having diplomatic ties with Israel
The world's largest airport is found in Dubai

What happened in Saudi Arabia (Lecture notes)?

Saudi Arabia is named after the ruling family, Sauds
Today, the country is ruled by a king
Saudi Arabia is known for its oil
25% of all global oil production happens in Saudi Arabia
The country is home to the largest oil field, Ghawar
Saudi Arabia tried t

What happened in Saudi Arabia (continued)?

Saudi Arabia is a developing country, it is the second largest economy in the Middle East
Saudi Arabia is home to Mecca and Medina, two important cultural cities for the Islamic faith

What happened in Qatar (Lecture notes)?

Qatar has a strong economy
Major natural gas producing country
Qatar currently is the 5th largest natural gas producer
Industry is expected to grow in the coming years
Host the 2022 World Cup, the first time it will be held in the Middle East

What happened in Iraq (Lecture Notes)?

Iraq was once held by the autocratic leader Saddam Hussein
2003: The United States launched a second war in Iraq to locate the biological and chemical weapons held by Huessian.

What happened in Kuwait (will be on the exam)?

2009: Kuwait elected four women to the national assembly
Gender imbalances in the region

What happened in Jordan?

Jordan has no major oil stocks
Its largest exporter is phosphate
Jordan is an emerging nuclear power
However, Jordan has asserted its nuclear ambitions are for energy purposes only

What happened in Israel?

Today, Israel is the largest recipient of US aid ($3.1B)
Israel was created after WWII, as a Jewish practicing country

What happened in Syria?

Syria was the last country to enter the Arab Springs
Today, Syria is in a civil war
400,00 people have died
Bashar Al-Assad is the current leader of Syria
The Free Syrian Army
The Kurds (Rojava)

What were the interests in the region (Syria)?

The rising threat of ISIS
Presently, Russia has a major naval base in Sytia

What is ISIS?

Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and Levent)
Daesh (rough translation is those that bring destruction)
ISIS is the wealthiest (net worth $2.5B) and the most violent terror group
Most of their income is generated from illegal oil

What happened in Iran and Turkey?

Contains 1/3rd of the Middle East population
Has a type C and D climate (subtropical and temperate)
This climate is more suitable for population concentrations