SOP Test 3 Native Americans / Indian Americans

Native Americans / Indian Americans

Totonac (Mexico) (children sacrificed to Aztec Gods)
Cahokia (mounds in Illinois) (human sacrifice; torture; dismembered others)
Apaches of the southwest (displaced by Comanches)
Iroquois (tortured captives; replace deceased members)


Phenotypical appearances
Linguistic similarities

Arbitrary "Epochs" in the Pre-Colombian World

Pre-classic (2000 BCE - 250 CE)
Classic (250 CE - 900 CE)
Post-classic (900 CE - 1521 CE)

Heterogeneity Among Indians

10 (up to 100?) million inhabitants of "New World" when Europeans arrived (no one knows...)
Varied somewhat in: Customs Religions Languages Cultural Development Aggressiveness

Also varied in...

Organized governments
Agricultural skills
Science / Math / "Written" language

They did not have...

(a) guns/rifles/canons
(b) wheel (no carts)
(c) "beasts of burden"
(d) written language (relied on "oral history")

The Big Three...

Mayas (2000 BCE - 900 CE) Central America and southern part of Mexico.
Incas (1200- 1533 CE) Peru and surrounding areas
Aztecs (1300-1521 CE) Mexico

Europeans wanted...


European Perceptions...


Diseases among Europeans

Small pox, Chicken pox
Influenza (Asia)
Bubonic plague (infections from rat fleas [Asia])
Malaria (infections from mosquitos [Africa])
Cholera (feces in water supplies)
Typhus (infections from lice or fleas)
Yellow Fever (infections from mos

Diseases among Native Americans

Treponemiasis (syphilis)
*Tuberculosis (previously thought to come from Europe)
Amoebic dysentery (drinking from ponds/lakes)
Hepatitis (feces contact / sexual contact)
Pertussis (whooping cough [cousin to influenza)
Poliomyelitis (Polio)

In the United States

1830 Indian Removal Act
Authorized U.S. Government to "relocate" Indians in lower eastern U.S. to west side of the Mississippi River
**with consent and compensation
Due to "cotton boom


Over 50,000 Indians (from different tribes) forced to live on reservations in Oklahoma
9.2% of Oklahoma's population is Native American (2017) (for comparison, 10.6% are "Hispanic")


Cherokees sued the U.S. Government
Supreme Court sided with Indians
President Andrew Jackson ignored Supreme Court rulings
1838-39 forced roughly 20,000 Cherokees, mostly by foot, to Oklahoma
"Trail of Tears" (approx. 4,000 died in route)

Trail of TearsUntold Part: Took their Slaves with Them


Toward the goal of annihilating Indians...

Genocide (wars) (debatable)
Took away land; slaughter buffalo
60 million buffalo (estimated)
1900 39 buffalo (all in Yellowstone National Park)
Concentrate multiple tribes together

Annihilating their culture...

Boarding Schools

Boarding schools...

1879 (Pennsylvania). Tribal leaders informed all Indian children must attend U.S Government operated boarding schools. (Mandatory)
For children age 5 and up
For about eight years total

At boarding schools...

Located long distance from homes
Required to learn English (punished if caught speaking native language)
Forced to wear "European/White" clothing
Forced to get hair cut "White" style
Curriculum 100% "Western"/European
-- learned to "compete," to organize

Native AmericansPart Two


Quote from Chief of "Six Nations" (about coming to william and marry for free for Natives)

You who are wise, must know that different nations have different conceptions of things. You will not therefore, take it amiss, if our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same with yours. (quote continues...) "...We have had some experie

Demographics (2017)

4.2 million (out of 327 million). 1.3%
567 "recognized" tribes in U.S.
About 30% live on "reservations"
Lowest % of high school graduates (approx. 80% [inflated, probably])
Poverty rate: 26% (double the national average) Survey

Education (2016)(earning 4-year degree)

Overall (all adults):
19.1% Native Americans (combined)
9.0% Native American (single race)
37.3% Whites
16.4% Hispanics
23.3% African Americans
55.9% Asian Americans

Core Values in usa most living in reservations(in general...)

Sharing, Cooperation, Non-Interference with Others, Time is subjective, No "nuclear" family, Nature/Environment, View of Aging / Elders, Religion, Sex and Sexuality.


Honor and respect are obtained by sharing one has with others (within tribe or with guests).


Cooperation is valued and rewarded (not competition [but...lots of exceptions]).

Non-Interference with Others

Each person as an "inalienable right" to be who they are and act as they wish (exceptions include violating others' rights)
Children are free to act and behave (exceptions)
Little concern for "developmental expectations

Time is subjective

Generally "present-oriented"
Planning for "future" is unimportant
"Meetings" rarely (or "vaguely") planned

No "nuclear" family (as we conceive of it)

Family membership based on combination of:
marriage, and


-Believe earth is a "Mother" ("Mother Earth")
-Must "protect" and not abuse Mother Earth
Distinct ("fluid")concept of "private property"
But...believe in "tribal property.

View of Aging / Elders

Age is a virtue
Brings wisdom and experience
Elderly are revered (getting "old" is not dreaded...)


Highly religious (superstitious)
Rituals (connect them to their ancestors and subsequent generations)

Sex and Sexuality

Pre-European Contact: Sexually permissive
Concept of "Nudity" non-existent
Saewyc et al, 1998 (usa not as open about being gay, 1/3 na was unsure of there sexual attractiveness to others, na dont have to catigorize themselves and do what they want)
49% of