What is an example of presidential authority as it relates to the federal bureaucracy?
A. He or she advises agencies regarding how laws should be put into effect.
B. He or she is responsible for confirming cabinet secretaries after their nomination.
C. He


Which statement regarding the role of congress as it relates to the defeat bureaucracy is true?
A. It is responsible for funding cabinet-level departments.
B. It has primary responsibility for overseeing the faithful execution of the nation's laws.
C. It


A defining characteristic of executive political appointees is that they:
A. do not typically remain in office after the president who appointed them leaves office.
B. form the majority of the Senior Executive Service.
C. receive promotions based upon the


Which statement is correct regarding members of the Senior Executive Service?
A. They occupy the bottom level of the bureaucratic power structure.
B. Their term of employment typically ends when a new president assumes office.
C. They can be removed from


Evelin is employed within the federal bureaucracy. Her position places her near the bottom of the bureaucratic power structure. She enjoys strong job security and will likely maintain her position far longer than any single president. Evelin is a(an):


Which statement regarding an iron triangle is NOT accurate?
A. An iron triangle consists of the bureaucracy, Congress, and interest groups.
B. Each component of an iron triangle receives benefits from its relationship to the others.
C. Iron triangles are


Which statement BEST describes the role of interest groups within an iron triangle?
A. They advocate for legislation that is favorable to the bureaucracy.
B. They work with the bureaucracy to create regulations that are favorable to themselves.
C. They pr


What is the role of Congress in an iron triangle?
A. determining funding levels for bureaucratic agencies
B. lobbying to secure bureaucratic policy goals
C. creating regulations favorable to bureaucratic agencies
D. implementing new bureaucratic policies


What is the role of bureaucratic agencies in an iron triangle?
A. They provide electoral support to members of Congress.
B. They implement laws as desired by Congress.
C. They advise Congress regarding bureaucratic funding.
D. They lobby on behalf of inte


Which statement BEST defines an issue network?
A. coordinated activities of the bureaucracy, Congress, and interest groups
B. the process through which rules are created in order to execute congressional laws
C. the process of determining which individual


Which factor has historically produced the most dramatic expansions in the size of the federal bureaucracy?
A. responses to economic, social, and military crises
B. growing demands by citizens for services
C. increasing complexity of tasks performed by th


In her position with the federal government, Diksha routinely advises the president on legal matters. In this capacity, Diksha is fulfilling one of her primary duties as:
A. the Attorney General.
B. Secretary of State.
C. a member of the Senior Executive


Which executive branch department is responsible for maintaining America's relationship with foreign nations?
A. the Department of War
B. the Department of State
C. the Treasury Department
D. the Justice Department


Which duty is NOT a responsibility of the Department of the Interior? A. supervising federal prisons
B. overseeing national parks
C. conducting federal policy with indigenous peoples
D. executing policy related to natural resources


Overseeing air commerce and the operation of America's pipelines are examples of the type of work performed by which government agency?
A. Department of Transportation
B. Department of Energy
C. Department of Commerce
D. Department of the Interior


When hurricanes flood the low-lying coastal areas of the United States, to which government agency can citizens turn for assistance?
A. Department of the Interior
B. Department of Health and Human Services
C. Department of Housing and Urban Development


How did the political patronage system, as practiced during Andrew Jackson's administration, lay the foundation for the modern federal bureaucracy?
A. It frustrated many people, which led Congress to pass the Pendleton Act under which the merit- based sys


The Pendleton Act, also known as the Civil Service Reform Act, was passed in 1883 to: A. address concerns about the corruption of the spoils system.
B. legalize the practice of political patronage.
C. standardize bureaucratic procedures.
D. replace the me


Which phrase BEST defines the federal civil service?
A. patronage-based bureaucracy
B. adjudicated bureaucracy
C. merit-based bureaucracy
D. discretionary bureaucracy


Which scenario is an example of the merit-based system of hiring and promotion?A. Maria was awarded a job in the president's administration after contributing a large sum of money to the president's election campaign.
B. Sally works in the Department of H


Which statement is accurate about the policymaking process?
A. Forming a policy is vital for anyone who wishes to influence the process.
B. Defining the problem is considered the most significant part of the process.
C. How the public views an issue is cr


Why is the implementation of a new policy typically not a straightforward process?
A. Federal bureaucrats often do not possess the technical expertise for successful implementation.
B. It is introduced into a body of existing policies, sometimes with comp


Dalia is a police officer. In this capacity, what role does she serve within the bureaucracy?
A. She is a career civil servant.
B. She is a member of the Senior Executive Service.
C. She is an executive branch official.
D. She is a front-line bureaucrat.


The power of bureaucrats to exercise partial authority over how a policy is implemented is known as:
A. discretion.
B. adjudication.
C. implementation.
D. regulation.


The process of addressing the critical details of a law is known as:
A. implementation.
B. regulation.
C. adjudication.
D. evaluating.


It is the duty of which commission to enforce reporting requirements by publicly held companies? A. the Securities and Exchange Commission
B. the Federal Communications Commission
C. the Federal Trade Commission
D. the Interstate Commerce Commission


Bristol is a federal employee whose job is to oversee public funding of presidential campaigns. For which agency does Bristol work?
A. the Securities and Exchange Commission
B. the Department of the Interior
C. the Federal Election Commission
D. the Depar


As a bureaucrat Hayato is often called upon to determine which individuals or groups may be covered under a particular program. What bureaucratic responsibility is Hayato exercising in this capacity?
A. discretion
B. adjudication
C. regulation
D. implemen


Which is an example of the regulations set forth by the Hatch Act?
A. Federal employees were forbidden from holding any elective office.
B. Federal employees were allowed to participate in fund-raising for political campaigns.
C. Federal employees were fo


Thomas, a federal employee, regularly participates in political campaigns. His actions are allowed under the:
A. Hatch Act.
B. Pendleton Act.
C. Civil Service Reform Act.
D. Federal Employees Political Activities Act.


Which group is NOT typically part of the policy evaluation process? A. local courts
B. Congress
C. academic institutions
D. policy entrepreneurs


Which two bodies have the authority to terminate a federal policy? A. Congress and the Supreme Court
B. the president and Congress
C. Congress and the Senior Executive Service
D. the Supreme Court and the Government Accountability Office


As someone who aspires to work on Wall Street, Xavier, who works for the Securities and Exchange Commission, is sometimes tempted to "look the other way" when certain SEC regulations are violated. This problematic situation is known as:
A. bureaucratic di


Which statement is correct about control of the federal bureaucracy?
A. The executive and legislative branches share formal control over the bureaucracy.
B. The judicial branch exercises significant control through the adjudication process.
C. All three b


Which is NOT a way the president can shape bureaucratic priorities? A. through reorganizing agencies
B. through the discretionary process
C. through the appointment or removal of agency heads
D. through the power of executive order


Irenka is employed by the federal government. Part of her job is to confirm presidential nominees for various executive-level cabinet positions. What is Irenka's job?
A. Senator
B. congresswoman
C. president
D. executive political appointee


If Congress believes that a particular bureaucratic agency is misappropriating congressionally allocated funds, what means does it have at its disposal to address that concern?
A. oversight
B. evaluation
C. regulation
D. termination


How can the federal judiciary impact bureaucratic behavior?
A. Judicial decisions can constrain the scope of accepted bureaucratic action.
B. It can conduct oversight investigations.
C. The Supreme Court can use judicial review to terminate agencies.
D. I


Which statement is correct regarding the perception of the bureaucracy among most Americans?
A. People often feel overwhelmed by the amount of coverage the bureaucracy receives in the media.
B. Public perception has a major impact on most bureaucratic beh


What is the definition of a bureaucracy?

A professional group of elected officials, organized in a pyramid hierarchy, that run the government.

What is the bureaucracy sometimes called?

4th branch of government

How many departments make up the cabinet?


What is implementation

Carrying out laws of congress and executive orders of the president

What is administration?

Routine administration work

What is regulation?

Issue rules and regulations that impact the public

What was the spoils system and who used it?

Andrew Jackson in 1820-1830 used the spoil system to give government jobs to loyal followers

What was the Pendleton Act?

limited patronage jobs and used merit system for about 10% of federal jobs

What is civil service?

Tested and evaluated candidates based on merit, not loyalty to party

What are some executive checks on the bureaucracy?

Appoint and remove agency heads, recognize the Bureaucracy, issue executive orders that the Bureaucracy has to follow, propose altering on agencies budget

What are some legislative checks on the Bureaucracy?

Create or abolish agencies and departments, cit or reduce funding, investigate agency activities through committee hearings, pass legislation, conform or deny presidential appointments

What are some judicial checks on the Bureaucracy?

Through judicial review declare actions by the Bureaucracy Unconstitutional, provide due process for individuals affected by bureaucratic actions

What is discretionary authority?

Power to make policy and choose actions that are not specified in laws

What is the iron triangle?

Mutually dependent relationship between the Bureaucracy, interest groups, and congressional committees

What is red tape?

Government rules and regulations that make it overwhelming for citizens

Department of State

1789, executes foreign policy, maintains diplomacy, relations with other nations, and advises the president on matters of diplomacy

Department of War/Defense

1789-1947, oversees national defense, through the army, navy, Air Force, as well as intelligence-gathering agencies and civilian personnel

Department of Treasury

1789, mints currency, collect taxes, devices the president on financial, trade, and tax policy

Department of Agriculture

1862, develops and executes policy to promote farming, including subsidizing agricultural practices, promoting US agriculture in international trade, and inspecting products for safety

Department of Justice

1870, advices the president and the cabinet on legal matters, supervises federal prisons, investigates possible violations of federal law

Department of Commerce

1913, promotes economic activity and job creation and issues patents and commercial trademarks

Department of Labor

1913, oversees relationships between firms and their employees, the federal minimum wage, and workplace safety

Department of Interior

1849, executes policy covering federally controlled natural resources, oversees national parks, monuments, and wildlife refugees, conducts the federal policy with indigenous people

Department of Health and Human Services

1953, administers social security, Medicaid, and Medicare and a large number of programs to promote public health, assist individuals with disabilities, and conduct and fun research on infectious diseases

Department of Transportation

1966, oversees and administers federal policy in areas such as highway development and construction, rail and air travel and commerce, and the safety and operation of ports and pipelines

Department of Housing and Urban Development

1965, administers federal laws on fair housing practices ad subsidizes housing for low income Americans

Department of Energy

1977, supports and oversees research and implementation of energy production as well as efforts in conservation

Department of Education

1980, funds and oversees federal effort to improve educational outcomes for students, distributes funds for students from low income families and student with disabilities as well as loans for college students

Department of Veterans Affairs

1989, administers federal benefits for veterans and their departments, including healthcare, rehabilitation, and employment

Department of Homeland Security

2002, acts to protect the nation from terrorism and respond to natural disasters

Describe Independent Executive Agencies.

Resemble cabinet department but with a
smaller scope and scale
Heads appointed by prez. without Senate
Serve at the president's will
These organizations cannot be in the cabinet
because then their purpose becomes cloudy

Describe Regulatory Agencies.

Controls and handles nation's economic activityo (Deal with economy when Congress
recognizes the importance of close
scrutiny of the economy)
Beyond Congress' abilities as it requires more
time and expertise
Each agency has power over a different

Describe Government Corporations.

Similar to but different from private corporations
Provide same services that private corporations
do but at a cheaper rate since they receive
federal funding to offset operating costs
Each group has director appointed by prez with
advise and consent of S

What does policy implementation require?

1. Creation of a new agency or the assigning
of a new responsibility to an old one
2. Translation of policy goals into operational
rules and guidelines - how to follow standard
operating procedures(sops)
3. Coordination of resources to achieve the