Scanning Final

The IVC lies along the posterior surface of what lobe of the liver?
a) left
b) caudate
c) quadrate
d) anterior segment of the right

b) caudate

The right and left common iliac veins are ______ the right and left common iliac arteries
a) posterior to
b) anterior to
c) wider than
d) longer than

a) posterior to

The lie of the aorta within the body is
a) mid sagittal
b) superior to inferior
c) transverse oblique
d) transverse

b) superior to inferior

The long axis of the aorta is visualized best in a
a) sagittal or coronal scanning plane
b) transverse scanning plane
c) axial section
d) right lateral decubitus position

a) sagittal or coronal scanning plane

Longitudinal views of the splenic artery and common hepatic artery are seen in a
a)sagittal or coronal scanning plane
b) transverse scanning plane
c) sagittal scanning plane
d) coronal section

b) transverse scanning plane

Axial views of the SMA are seen in a
a) sagittal or coronal sagittal plane
b) transverse scanning plane
c) sagittal scanning plane
d) longitudinal section

b) transverse scanning plane

Longitudinal views of the renal arteries are seen in a
a) sagittal or coronal scanning plane
b) transverse scanning plane
c) sagittal scanning plane
d) sagittal section

b) transverse scanning plane

The size of the aorta is normal up to
a) 3 cm
b) 1.5 cm
c) 2 cm
d) 3.5 cm

a) 3 cm

The proximal abdominal aorta is the portion
a) between the diaphragm and CA trunk
b) between the diaphragm and the caudate lobe of the liver
c) just inferior to the CA trunk
d) that ascends from the heart

a) between the diaphragm and the CA trunk

The mid portion of the abdominal aorta is
a) between the diaphragm and the CA
b) inferior to the celiac trunk and along the length of the SMA
c) between the CA trunk and IMA
d) between the CA trunk and the SMA trunk

b) inferior to the celiac trunk and along the length of the SMA

Beginning posteriorly, and in correct order by the location in the body, the abdominal aorta is
a) to the left of the spine, posterior to the splenic and common hepatic arteries, the SMA, splenic vein, tails of the pancreas, left lobe of the liver
b)anter

b)anterior and just to the left of the spine, posterior to the gastroesophageal junction, CA, SMA, splenic vein, body of the pancreas, portion of the stomach, left lobe of the liver

The distal abdominal aorta is the portion
a) that lies between the renal arteries and the IMA
b) inferior to the SMA trunk and superior to the bifurcation
c) posterior to the head of the pancreas
d) the bifurcation

b) inferior to the SMA trunk and superior to the bifurcation

The aorta is posterior to all of the following except the
a) left renal vein
b) SMA
c) esophageal gastric junction
d) the bifurcation

d) the bifurcation

A(n) __________ section of the RRA is seen _________
a) axial, in a transverse scanning plane between axial sections of the SMV and IVC
b) longitudinal, in a transverse scanning plane posterior to an axial section of the IVC and long section of the RRV
c)

b) longitudinal, in a transverse scanning plane posterior to an axial section of the IVC and long section of the RRV

Which of the following is not a direct branch of the abdominal aorta?
a) celiac trunk
b) Renal artery
c) mesenteric artery
d) external iliac artery

d) external iliac artery

What is the most common location of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
a) suprarenal
b) aortic arch
c) infrarenal
d) thoracic

c) infrarenal

The biggest risk factor for rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is
a) location
b) size
c) velocity of the flow through the vessel
d) age of the patient

b) size

CT (compared with sonography) has the disadvantage of
a)producing radiation
b)being very inaccurate
c)being portable
d)utilizing magnetic waves to produce an image

a) producing radiation

The normal Aorta _________ in diameter as it progresses inferiorly.
a)turns into a vein
b)remains the same
c)decreases
d)increases

c) decreases

The structure(s) which receive(s) blood from the superior mesenteric artery include
a) intestines and pancreas
b) intestines and kidney
c) head and neck
d) brain

a) intestines and pancreas

The common hepatic artery branches from the
a) celiac axis
b) right hepatic artery
c) proper hepatic artery
d) left hepatic artery

a) celiac axis

The celiac artery is a branch of the
a) aorta
b) gonadal artery
c) common hepatic artery
d) iliac artery

a) aorta

The three branches of the celiac artery are
Question options:
a) right gastric artery, common and proper hepatic arteries
b) right gastric artery, splenic artery, proper hepatic artery
c) left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery
d) left

c) left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery

The abdominal aorta cannot be imaged in the _________ plane.
a) sagittal
b) transverse
c) thoracic
d) longitudinal

c) thoracic

The lie of the IVC within the body is
a) midsagittal
b) superior to inferior
c) oblique
d) transverse

b) superior to inferior

The long axis of the IVC is seen from a(n)
a) sagittal or coronal scanning plane
b) transverse scanning plane
c) axial section
d) left lateral decubitus position

a) sagittal or coronal scanning plane

Longitudinal views of the renal vein tributaries are seen in a
a) sagittal or coronal scanning plane
b)transverse scanning plane
c) midsagittal plane
d) longitudinal section

b)transverse scanning plane

Axial views of the renal vein tributaries are seen in a
a) sagittal or coronal scanning plane
b) transvers scanning plane
c) midsagittal plane
d) longitudinal section

a) sagittal or coronal scanning plane

The IVC
a) tributaries include the splenic vein
b) tributaries include the splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein
c) passes through a deep fossa on the inferior surface of the liver at the level where it is anterior to the left renal artery
d) passes t

d) passes through a deep fossa on the posterior surface of the liver between the caudate lobe and bare area

The size of the IVC is normal up to
a) 4 cm
b) 1.5 cm
c) 2 cm
d) 3.5

a) 4 cm

The proximal IVC is the portion
a) that extends superiorly from the common iliac veins to just below the level of the renal veins
b) adjacent to the diaphragm and posterior to the body of the liver
c) posterior to the head of the pancreas at the level of

a) that extends superiorly from the common iliac veins to just below the level of the renal veins

The mid portion of the IVC is
a) that extends superiorly from the common iliac veins to just below the level of the renal veins
b) adjacent to the diaphragm and posterior to the body of the liver
c) posterior to the head of the pancreas at the level of th

c) posterior to the head of the pancreas at the level of the renal veins

The distal IVC is the portion
a) that extends superiorly from the common iliac veins to just below the level of the renal veins
b) that extends superior to the renal veins to the right atrium of the heart
c) posterior to the head of the pancreas at the le

b) that extends superior to the renal veins to the right atrium of the heart

Beginning posteriorly, and in correct order by the location in the body, the IVC is:
a) just to the right and at the same level as the spine, posterior to the splenic and common hepatic arteries, body of the pancreas, and right lobe of the liver
b) anteri

b) anterior and just to the right of the spine, anterior to the right renal artery, posterior to the head of the pancreas, gastroduodenal artery, portal splenic confluence, and the liver

The left renal vein has a(n) _______ course compared the right renal vein
a) identical
b) shorter
c) wider
d) longer

d) longer

All of the following are IVC tributaries except
a) hepatic veins
b) right renal vein
c) superior mesenteric vein
d) left renal vein

c) superior mesenteric vein

The primary function of the IVC is to
a) carry deoxygenated blood from the heart
b) serve as a lymph drainage channel
c) carry deoxygenated blood to the heart
d) regulate metabolism

c) carry deoxygenated blood to the heart

The IVC is medial to all of the following except the
a) right adrenal gland
b) caudate lobe
c) right kidney
d) right ureter

b) caudate lobe

The IVC is anterior to all of the following except
a) transverse duodenum
b) right crus of the diaphragm
c) right adrenal gland
d) psoas major muscle

a) transverse duodenum

The IVC is right lateral to all of the following except the
a) aorta
b) caudate lobe
c) left renal vein
d) portal splenic confluence

b) caudate lobe

The IVC is posterior to all of the following except the
a) uncinate process
b) spine
c) hepatic veins
d) common bile duct

b) spine

The IVC passes through a deep fossa on the posterior surface of the liver between the _______ and ______
a) caudate lobe and gallbladder fossa
b) spine and right lateral lobe
c) caudate lobe and bare area
d) bare area and diaphragm

c) caudate lobe and bare area

Normally the diameter of the IVC will _____________ during a valsalva maneuver or inspiration.
a) decrease
b) increase
c) collapse
d) stay the same

b) increase

The orientation of the IVC within the body is
a) vertical oblique
b) vertical
c) oblique
d) horziontal

b) vertical

Which of the following vessels run posterior to the IVC?
a) left renal vein
b) right hepatic artery
c) right renal artery
d) left renal artery

c) right renal artery

The superior mesenteric vein empties into the
inferior vena cava
splenic vein
right renal vein
portal vein

portal vein

The left renal vein has a(n) ______________ course compared to the right renal vein.
identical
shorter
longer
wider

longer

The primary function of the IVC is to
carry deoxygenated blood from the heart
act as a lymph drainage channel
carry deoxygenated blood to the heart
regulate heat dissipation from organs

carry deoxygenated blood to the heart

The left gonadal vein empties into the
inferior vena cava
left renal vein
right renal vein
right gonadal vein

left renal vein

Blood flow in veins should be ____________ and _____________
nonspontaneous and nonphasic
spontaneous and nonphasic
nonspontaneous and phasic
spontaneous and phasic

spontaneous and phasic

The normal venous system is a __________ pressure system.
high
low
no
medium

low

The inferior vena cava has a __________ tunica media than the aorta.
thicker
thinner
same size
more echogenic

thinner

The lumen of all normal veins should appear without echoes except for
tumors
aggregated red blood cells
valves and slow-moving blood
thrombus

valves and slow-moving blood

The right gonadal vein empties into the
right renal vein
inferior vena cava
left gonadal vein
left renal vein

inferior vena cava

The sonographic appearance of normal liver parenchyma may be described as
a) hypoechoic relative to normal renal cortex
b) heterogenous with low-level echoes
c) homogenous with medium-level echoes
d) hyperechoic relative to the pancreas

c) homogenous with medium-level echoes

The vascular branches seen scattered throughout the liver parenchyma are
a) pulmonary and hepatic veins
b) portal veins
c) hepatic veins
d) portal hepatic veins

d) portal hepatic veins

The portal vein is formed by the confluence of the
a) splenic vein and superior and inferior mesenteric veins
b) superior and inferior mesenteric views
c) splenic vein, pancreatic duct, and common bile duct
d) splenic and SMV

a) splenic vein and superior and inferior mesenteric veins

The portal triad is found at the level of the _____ and consists of the _______
a) portal hepatis; hepatic artery, bile duct, and portal vein
b) confluence of the portal vein; gastroduodenal artery, bile duct, and portal vein
c) portal hepatis; hepatic ar

a) portal hepatis; hepatic artery, bile duct, and portal vein

The liver is intraperitoneal except for interruptions at the gallbladder fossa, porta hepatis, and falciform ligament, portions around the IVC, and ______
a) the superior surface
b) the anterior surface
c) the bare area
d) Glisson's capsule

c) the bare area

The liver is divided into lobes according to ______ and into segments according to ______
a) function; anatomy
b) function; biliary drainage
c) anatomy; function
d) blood supply; biliary drainage

c) anatomy; function

The main lobar fissure of the lifer
a) subdivides the right lobe into anterior and posterior portions
b) runs between the right branch of the portal vein and the neck of the GB
c) forms the left boundary of the medial portion of the left lobe
d) runs betw

b) runs between the right branch of the portal vein and the neck of the GB

The caudate lobe is located on which surface of the liver?
a) inferior
b) posterior
c) anterior
d) superior

b) posterior

The right, left and middle hepatic veins
a) cover at the porta hepatis
b) drain the blood from the right lobe of the liver
c) empty into the IVC
d) empty into the main portal vein

c) empty into the IVC

A longitudinal section of the right and left branches of the portal vein is seen in a
a) sagittal scanning plane
b) longitudinal view of the right lobe of the liver
c) transverse scanning plane
d) axial section of the left lobe of the liver

c) transverse scanning plane

Anteroposterior measurement of the adult liver should not be larger than
a) 12 cm
b) 15 cm
c) 20 cm
d) 25 cm

b) 15 cm

Which ligament separates the left lobe from the caudate lobe?
a) coronary
b) venosum
c) falciform
d) hepatoduodenal

b) venosum

segmental lobar anatomy divides the liver into ____ lobes
a) three
b) four
c) six
d) eight

a) three
(caudate, right, left)

The right lobe of the liver is divided into the anterior and posterior segments by the ______
a) middle hepatic vein
b) right hepatic vein
c) right portal vein
d) main portal vein

b) right hepatic vein

The normal liver should have a/an _____ sonographic appearance
a) homogenous
b)heterogenous
c) low-level echogenicity
d) anechoic

a) homogenous

The boundaries of the bare area of the liver include the
falciform, coronary and triangular ligaments
lesser sac, hepatoduodenal ligament and the right kidney
inferior vena cava, middle hepatic vein and mail portal vein
left coronary ligament, transverse

falciform, coronary and triangular ligaments

The liver originates from which portion of the primitive gut?
hindgut
midgut
foregut
mesentery

foregut

The base of the liver pyramid is the _________ surface.
right lateral
left inferior
superior
anterior

right lateral

Anomalies of the liver included each of those listed, except:
Reidel's lobe
hemangioma
extrahepatic biliary stenosis
situs inversus

extrahepatic biliary stenosis

The surface of the liver which rests upon the abdominal organs is the __________ surface
posterior
anterior
superior
inferior

inferior

The caudate lobe of the liver is related to each of the following, except the
posterior abdominal wall
left portal vein
inferior vena cava
splenic vein

splenic vein

Hemopoieses is responsible for _________ of the liver.
the rapid development
the large size
drainage systems
hepatocyte formation

the large size

The inferior surface of the liver is marked by indentations from each of the following, except
head of the pancreas
hepatic flexure of the colon
right adrenal gland
first part of the duodenum

head of the pancreas

Any of the following are located within a lobule of the liver, except
Kupffer cells
hepatocytes
blood sinuses
portal venules

portal venules

The liver occupies a major portion of the ________________ region.
hypogastric
umbilical
epigastric
right hypochondriac

right hypochondriac

The long axis of the gallbladder is visualized in
a) a transverse scanning plane
b) either transverse, sagittal, or coronal scanning planes depending on its position
c) a sagittal scanning plane
d) longitudinal scanning plane

b) either transverse, sagittal, or coronal scanning planes

What can help in the evaluation of the retro duodenal portion of the CBD?
a) use waters to displace the bowel
b) glucagon
c) intercostal, left lateral decubitus approach
d) use a sharp transducer angle right laterally from the midline

a) use waters to displace the bowel

In a sagittal scanning plane at the level of the porta hepatis the portal vein will be
a) seen in long axis
b) seen in short axis
c) anterior to the common duct
d) anterior to the hepatic artery

b) seen in short axis

Different patient positions are used when evaluating the gall bladder because
a) it distinguishes certain abnormalities from each other
b) single position evaluation is not enough confirmation
c) of the variability of the position of the GB
d) it unfolds

a) it distinguishes certain abnormalities from each other

_______ describes a folded gall bladder fundus
a) segmental contraction
b) santorini's fold
c) biliary bend
d)Phrygian cap

d)Phrygian cap

The long axis view of the common duct is seen
a) in an oblique sagittal scanning plane
b) in an oblique transverse scanning plane
c) posterior to the long axis of the hepatic artery
d) posterior to the axial sections of the portal vein

a) in an oblique sagittal scanning plane

The gallbladder tends to lie in the
a) retroperitoneum
b) midepigastrium
c) area between the right medial angle of the ribs an the superior pole of the right kidney
d) area just inferior to the level of the costal margin

c) area between the right medial angle of the ribs an the superior pole of the right kidney

The CBD is located to the hepatic artery
a) left lateral
b) right lateral
c) inferomedially
d) posterior

b) right lateral

The cystic duct connects the
a) common hepatic and CBDs
b) common duct and pancreatic duct
c) common duct and gallbladder neck
d) gallbladder neck and body

c) common duct and gallbladder neck

The spiral valve
a) closes when the gallbladder is full of bile
b) regulates the flow of the bile from the gallbladder
c) is the tortuous connection of the gallbladder and cystic duct
d) is the tortuous connection of the gallbladder and common duct

c) is the tortuous connection of the gallbladder and cystic duct

The proximal portion of the common duct is
a) called the CBD
b) appears transverse when viewed at the level of the porta hepatis in a sagittal plane
c) is called the CHD
d) appears transverse when viewed at the level of the pancreas head in a sagittal sca

c) is called the CHD

the distal portion of the common duct is
a) called the CBD
b) appears transverse when viewed at the level of the porta hepatis in a sagittal head
c) called the CHD
d) appears transverse when viewed at the level of the pancreas head in a sagittal scanning

a) called the CBD

The common duct usually lies at a right angle to the costal margin
a) true
b) false

a) true

The gallbladder serves as a storage site for the bile and is variable in size according to the amount of bile it is storing
a) true
b) false

a) true

The CHD is considered normal in size up to
a) 2mm
b) 4 mm
c) 6 mm
d) 8 mm

b) 4 mm

What is the normal diameter of the gallbladder wall
a) < 0.5 mm
b) > 1.0 cm
c) < 3 mm
d) > 5 mm

c) < 3 mm

The gallbladder is described in three major sections
a) head, neck, body
b) head, neck, fundus
c) left, middle, right
d) superior, medial, lateral

b) head, neck, fundus

The biliary system has three main functions. which of the following is not a function?
a) transports bile to the gallbladder
b) stores bile
c) transports bile to aid in digestion of fat
d) stores enzymes

d) stores enzymes

The biliary ducts are subdivided into the intrahepatic and extrahepatic ducts
a) true
b) false

a) true

A fold in the gallbladder fundus is called a Phrygian cap
a) true
b) false

a) true

Intrahepatic bile ducts are not routinely visualized on ultrasound
a) true
b) false

a) true

The gallbladder is an intraperitoneal organ
a) true
b) false

a) true

The caudate lobe is supplied with blood from the
gastroduodenal artery
right portal vein
right and left portal veins
left portal vein

right and left portal veins

The medial portion of the left lobe of the liver is also referred to as the
quadrate lobe
Glisson's cap
main lobar fissure
papillary projection

quadrate lobe

The liver metabolizes
fats, carbohydrates and proteins
blood proteins and lymph fluids
complex sugars, salts and bile
none of the above

fats, carbohydrates, and proteins

The left hepatic vein and the ______________ separate the left hepatic lobe from the caudate.
quadrate lobe
intersegmental fissure
bare area
fissure for the ligamentum venosum

fissure for the ligamentum venosum

The hepatic veins are ____________ and _____________
intralobar, intersegmental
interlobar, intersegmental
intralobar, intrasegmental
interlobar, intrasegmental

interlobar, intersegmental

The portal confluence has three main tributaries: the inferior mesenteric vein, the superior mesenteric vein and the
pancreaticoduodenal vein
middle hepatic vein
splenic vein
superior phrenic vein

splenic vein

The left portal vein communicated with the _________________ in patients with sever portal hypertension.
left hepatic vein
splenic artery
umbilical vein
right portal vein

umbilical vein

The left hepatic lobe is __________ size and shape.
dependent upon the medial lobe for its
variable in
fixed in
increased, when compared to the right by

variable in

The portal system supplies what percentage of the total blood flow to the liver?
50
90
30
75

75

Which of the following would result in a false statement? The free inferior margin of the left lobe lies adjacent to the
body of the pancreas
splenic vein
hepatic flexure
splenic artery

hepatic flexure

The sonographic appearance of the pancreas is described as
a) heterogenous and hyperechoic relative to the liver
b) heterogenous and isosonic relative to the renal parenchyma
c) homogenous and hypoechoic relative to the liver
d) homogenous and hyperechoic

d) homogenous and hyperechoic relative to the liver

The contour of the normal pancreas
a) appears smooth and even
b) may be difficult to evaluate due to retroperitoneal fat infiltration
c) appears uneven
d) may be difficult to evaluate because there are not fat interfaces to distinguish it from adjacent st

b) may be difficult to evaluate due to retroperitoneal fat infiltration

A longitudinal view of the Wirsung's duct is
a) seen in a transverse plane
b) seen in a sagittal oblique plane
c) too small to distinguish sonographically
d) seen only in the head of the pancreas

a) seen in a transverse plane

The long axis of the pancreas is
a) seen in a transverse plane
b) seen in a sagittal oblique plane
c) not appreciated sonographically due to the different position of its various parts
d) is an axial portion

a) seen in a transverse plane

The head of the pancreas is
a) posterior to the liver and stomach, medial to the duodenum, anterior to the IVC
b) posterior to the liver, medial to the duodenum, anterior to the SMV
c) posterior to the liver, medial to the duodenum, anterior to the IVC
d)

c) posterior to the liver, medial to the duodenum, anterior to the IVC

The neck of the pancreas is
a) anterior to the SMA and uncinate process
b) posterior to the liver and duodenum
c) anterior to the SMV, portal splenic confluence, and uncinate process
d) posterior to the liver, duodenum, and hepatic artery

c) anterior to the SMV, portal splenic confluence, and uncinate process

The body of the pancreas is
a) anterior to the SMV and SMA; inferior to the splenic artery
b anterior to the splenic vein and SMA; inferior to the splenic artery
c) posterior to the liver and duodenum; anterior to the SMV
d) posterior to the liver of the

b anterior to the splenic vein and SMA; inferior to the splenic artery

The tail of the pancreas is
a) anterior to the SMA, left renal vein, and left kidney; posterior to the stomach
b) anterior to the splenic vein, left renal vein, and left kidney; posterior to the stomach
c) lateral to the splenic artery, posterior to the s

b) anterior to the splenic vein, left renal vein, and left kidney; posterior to the stomach

A standard alternative approach for scanning the pancreas tail is
a) intercostal scanning
b) subcostal scanning
c) anterior approach
d) posterior approach

d) posterior approach

The exocrine function of the pancreas is
a) accessory storage of bile
b) to produce the hormones insulin and cortisone
c) to produce the hormone insulin
d) to aid digestion in conjunction with the biliary system

d) to aid digestion in conjunction with the biliary system

What structure is identified at the anterior aspect of the head of the pancreas?
a) common bile duct
b) common hepatic duct
c) gastroduodenal artery
d) splenic vein

c) gastroduodenal artery

Which portion of the pancreas is the least commonly visualized by ultrasound?
a) uncinate process
b) body
c) neck
d) tail

d) tail

What is the relationship of the pancreas to the SMV?
a) posterior to the tail
b) posterior to the neck
c) lateral to the tail
d) superior to the body

b) posterior to the neck

Which part(s) of the pancreas does the duodenum encircle?
a) head
b) body
c) neck
d) all of the above

a) head

The tail of the pancreas is in contact with which structures?
a) left kidney
b) splenic flexure of the colon
c) spleen
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

In most cases, the long axis of the left kidney is most easily resolved from which scanning plane?
a) coronal transverse scanning plane
b) transabdominal sagittal oblique scanning plane
c) coronal scanning plane
d) coronal oblique scanning plane

d) coronal oblique scanning plane

The sonographic appearance of normal renal cortex is
a) hyperechoic relative to the liver
b) heterogenous
c) hypoechoic relative to the liver
d) highly reflective

c

The overall sonographic appearance of the kidneys can be described as
a) hyperechoic relative to the liver
b) heterogenous
c) hypoechoic relative to the liver
d) highly reflective

b) heterogenous

The sonographic appearance of the normal renal sinus is
a) homogenous
b) heterogenous
c) hypoechoic relative to the liver
d) highly reflective

d) highly reflective

The medullary pyramids are
a) not sonographically distinguishable
b) abnormal if visualized sonographically
c) hypoechoic or anechoic relative to the renal cortex depending on the amount of urine they contain
d) referred to as the major and minor calyces

c) hypoechoic or anechoic relative to the renal cortex depending on the amount of urine they contain

The renal pelvis
a) is formed by the expanded superior end of the ureter where it divides into the medullary pyramids; not visualized sonographically when collapsed
b) is another term for the renal hilum
c) is formed by the expanded superior end of the ur

c) is formed by the expanded superior end of the ureter where it is divides into the infundibula; not visualized sonographically when collapsed

The normal contour of the kidney
a) can be seen indenting the renal sinus
b) appears smooth and even on ultrasound
c) is formed by the arcuate vessels
d) appears hypoechoic relative to the renal cortex

b) appears smooth and even on ultrasound

The infundibula
a) can be seen sonographically at the corticomedullay junction as bright dots
b) appears sonographically as triangular or round anechoic urine-filled structures in the cortex
c) surrounds the renal sinus
d) are the major and minor calyces

d) are the major and minor calyces

The psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles
a) appear sonographically as the low-gray structures posterior to the kidneys
b) form the bright interface between the right kidney and the liver
c) are support structures for the kidney that are not appreciated so

a) appear sonographically as the low-gray structures posterior to the kidneys

Which sentence describes the normal echogenicity of the renal cortex?
a) the normal kidney is never isoechoic with the liver
b) the kidney is normally hyperechoic in comparison to the spleen and liver
c) the normal kidney echogenicity is frequently isoech

c) the normal kidney echogenicity is frequently isoechoic with the liver and the spleen

The normal range in size of the kidney is ________
a) 4 to 7 cm
b) 7 to 9 cm
c) 9 to 14 cm
d) 13 to 17 cm

c) 9 to 14 cm

Which sentence is true regarding the normal anatomy of the kidneys?
a) the kidneys are retroperitoneal in location
b) the right kidney is located slightly superior compared to the left
c) the superomedial aspect of the right kidney does not come in contac

a) the kidneys are retroperitoneal in location

Periodic ureteral "jets" are a sign of
a) ureteral stones
b) ureteral spasms
c) ureteral compression
d) normality

d) normality

Which of the following is not part of the urinary tract?
a) kidneys
b) uterus
c) ureters
d) urinary bladder

b) uterus

What organ normally lies anterior and lateral to the right kidney?
Pancreas
Liver
IVC
No organ lies there

liver

The hilum contains all of the following EXCEPT?
renal artery
distal ureter
renal vein
proximal ureter

distal ureter

What frequency transducer could be used for a very thin patient when scanning the kidneys?
5.0 MHz
6.5 MHz
1.8 MHz
2.5 MHz

5.0 MHz

As part of the protocol in scanning the right kidney, one should
scan the patient in whichever position gives the best images, holding their breath as needed
scan the kidney in only a supine position
scan the kidney in only a transverse plane
ask the pati

scan the patient in whichever position gives the best images, holding their breath as needed

When scanning he left kidney, which position might be easier than supine?
Left lateral decubitus
Standing
Right lateral decubitus
Upright

Right lateral decubitus

This kidneys can be found in any of the following areas except?
Renal fossa
Pelvic
Retroperitoneal
Intraperitoneal

intraperitoneal

What are the two distinct areas of the kidney?
Parachyma and Sinus
Hilum and Nephrons
Parachyma and Hilum
Sinus and Hilum

parenchyma and sinus

Which of the following is NOT a normal variant of the kidney?
Column of Bertin
Phrygain cap
Horseshoe
Dromedary Hump

Phrygain cap

The sonographic apperance of the normal spleen is
a) heterogenous, midgray, interrupted by multiple anechoic vascular branches
b) homogenous, midgray, isosonic or hypoechoic relative to the liver
c) homogenous, midgray, isosonic or hyperechoic relative to

b) homogenous, midgray, isosonic or hypoechoic relative to the liver

The spleen is
a) anterior to the pancreas tail, lateral to the stomach, splenic vein and splenic artery
b) retroperitoneal in the left hypochondrium
c) intraperitoneal in the left hypochondrium
d) lateral to the pancreas tail, anterior to the stomach, ant

c) intraperitoneal in the left hypochondrium

The long axis of the spleen
a) is only resolved from a posterior approach
b) is seen in a left coronal oblique plane
c) is seen in a transverse plane
d) cannot be resolved intercostally

b) is seen in a left coronal oblique plane

In most cases, the best patient position is visualize the spleen is
a) right posterior oblique
b) left lateral decubitus
c) right lateral decubitus
d) left posterior oblique

c) right lateral decubitus

Accessory spleen is
a) not sonographically distinguishable
b) splenic tissue is found separate form the spleen
c) abnormal if visualized sonographically
d) a rare duplicate spleen

b) splenic tissue is found separate form the spleen

The spleen is part of the reticuloendothelial system and is
a) a large mass of lymphatic tissue
b) essential to life
c) the body's largest manufacture of insulin cells
d) responsible for hormone production

a) a large mass of lymphatic tissue

The splenic artery is
a) runs directly anterior to the splenic vein
b) is visualized longitudinally in a sagittal oblique plane
c) is visualized longitudinally in a left coronal plane
d) runs superior and slightly anterior to the splenic vein

d) runs superior and slightly anterior to the splenic vein

A scanning technique to help resolve the structures at the splenic hilum is to
a) use very light pressure within the intercostal space
b) angle the transducer anteriorly while the patient preforms the valsalva maneuver
c) very slightly rotate/twist the tr

c) very slightly rotate/twist the transducer, first one way and then the other

The spleen is
a) ovoid with a convex superior surface and concave inferomedial surface
b) ovoid with lobulated surfaces
c) ovoid with a concave superior surface
d) ovoid with a convex inferior surface

a) ovoid with a convex superior surface and concave inferomedial surface

The major function of the spleen are
a) red blood cell and platelet destruction, defense, hematopoiesis, blood reservoir
b) defense, hematopoiesis, red blood cells production, blood reservoir
c) defense, insulin production, blood reservoir
d) red blood ce

a) red blood cell and platelet destruction, defense, hematopoiesis, blood reservoir

When scanning near the splenic hilum, what structures will you encounter?
a) left kidney
b) left lobe of the liver
c) splenic vein
d) inferior mesenteric vein

c) splenic vein

What vein does the splenic vein drain into?
a) portal vein
b) left renal vein
c) IVC
d) inferior mesenteric vein

a) portal vein

The splenic vein joins the SMV and forms the _______
a) hepatic vein
b) gastric vein
c) portal vein
d) inferior mesenteric vein

c) portal vein

The linings of the vagina and uterus
a) are separated by the external os of the cervix
b) excrete glycogen-rich mucous during the secretory phase
c) are shed during menses
d) enclose a continuous cavity or channel through which the fetus passes at birth

d) enclose a continuous cavity or channel through which the fetus passes at birth

The walls of the uterus are composed of
a) the serosa, basal layer and endometrium
b) outer adventitia, middle thin smooth muscle, and inner mucosal lining
c) endometrium, myometrium, and basal layer
d) endometrium, myometrium, and serosa

d) endometrium, myometrium, and serosa

What part of the uterus enlarges during the menstrual cycle?
a) endometrium
b) basal layer
c) myometrium
d) endometrial canal

a) endometrium

The functional zone
a) occurs during the proliferative phase
b) is the superficial layer of the endometrium
c) is the innermost layer of the myometrium
d) is not influenced by the menstrual cycle

b) is the superficial layer of the endometrium

The isthmus is the slightly constricted portion of
a) the uterine body where it meets the uterine cervix
b) uterine cervix where it meets the vagina
c) the uterine body that is abnormal if visualized soographically
d) a rare duplicate cervix

a) the uterine body where it meets the uterine cervix

The normal position of the uterus is described as
a) anteflexed
b) retroverted
c) anteverted
d) retroflexed

c) anteverted

When the urinary bladder is displaced posteriorly
a) look for a mass in the space of Retzius
b) is it considered a normal variant
c) the uterus is anteflexed
d) the uterus is retroflexed

a) look for a mass in the space of Retzius

The luteal phase correlated with
a) menses
b) the proliferative phase
c) follicle maturation
d) the secretory phase

d) the secretory phase

The follicular phase correlates with
a) menses
b) the proliferative phase
c) follicle maturation
d) the secretory phase

a) menses

When does the endometrium exhibit a multilayered appearance?
a) during menses
b) during the early proliferative phase
c) during the late proliferative phase
d) during the late secretory phase

c) during the late proliferative phase

Which muscles form a hammock across the pelvic floor?
a) levator ani
b) piriformis
c) obturator internus
d) coccygeus

a) levator ani

Which muscles are sometime mistaken for the ovaries?
a) levator ani
b) piriformis
c) obturator internus
d) coccygeus

b) piriformis

Just before the onset of menses, the endometrium measures______
a) 1 mm
b) 12 mm
c) 4 mm
d) 8 mm

d) 8 mm

The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the endometrium during the secretory phase is
a) 14 to 16 mm
b) 15 to 28 mm
c) 4 mm
d) 8 mm

a) 14 to 16 mm

It is normal to visualize a small amount of free fluid in the
a) vesicouterine pouch
b) anterior cul-de-sac
c) posterior cul-de-sac
d) lateral pelvic recesses

c) posterior cul-de-sac

The pouch of Douglas is also known as the
a) vesicouterine pouch
b) anterior cul-de-sac
c) posterior cul-de-sac
d) lateral pelvic recesses

c) posterior cul-de-sac

The rectouterine pouch is also known as the
a) vesicouterine pouch
b) anterior cul-de-sac
c) posterior cul-de-sac
d) lateral pelvic recesses

c) posterior cul-de-sac