Microbiology Chapters 28 & 29 Review

when does acquired immunity begin?

after exposure to an antigen

describe the difference between primary immune response and secondary immune response

primary: there is a latent period before specific antibody appears in the blood, followed by gradual increase in antibody titer and then a slow decrease
secondary: the rise in antibody titer; illustrates immune memory; switches from mostly Igm to another

5 vaccines we normally get

1. varicella (chicken pox)
2. hepatitis B
3. DTaP; several throughout 16 years (diptheria, tetnis, pertussis, aka whopping cough)
4. IPV (polio)
5. MMR (measles, mumps, murbellum)

the function of platelets is to...

help in blood clotting

when cells and platelets are removed from blood, the remaining fluid is called...


do vaccinations prevent diseases, cure diseases, or both?

-prevent, can't cure

if you are injected with a vaccination of the flu virus, why don't you get the flu?

-attenuated strains are weakened, still looks like it but isn't strong enough to cause infection; produce memory cells


-study of immune systems in all organisms


-treatment with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease; inoculation


-Most agents used for immunization are either
attenuated or inactivated pathogens or inactivated
forms of microbial products such as toxins


-are soluble
proteins made by B cells in response to exposure
to nonself antigens
-B cells display antibodies on their cell surfaces
that directly interact with antigens to cause B
cells to ingest pathogen via phagocytosis
-Several different classes exist

acquired immunity

-Immunity obtained either from the development of antibodies in response to exposure to an antigen, as from vaccination or an attack of an infectious disease, or from the transmission of antibodies, as from mother to fetus through the placenta or the inje


-pathogen-infected host cells are killed after they are recognized via pathogen antigens found on their surface


-Antibody or TCR does not interact with whole
antigenic macromolecule, but only with a
distinct portion of the molecule called an
antigenic determinant or...


- are specialized leukocytes
involved exclusively in adaptive immune
� Two types of lymphocytes:
- B cells originate and mature in bone marrow
- T cells originate in bone marrow, but mature in
- produces a unique protein that
interacts wit


-Initiate inflammation and immunity by
activating macrophages
-Activated neutrophils release chemokines to
recruit macrophages by guiding them along a
chemokine gradient
-Activated macrophages kill intracellular bacteria


-another name for an antibody
-are soluble
proteins made by B cells in response to exposure
to nonself antigens

Ig classes

- IgM and IgG are found in blood
- IgA is found in secretions from mucous
- IgE is involved in parasite immunity and allergies
- IgD is found on surface of B cell