AP II Exam 2

exocrine

________ glands- secrete material to outside the body. EX) goblet cells, salivary glands, pancreas (digestive)

endocrine

______ glands- secrete materials (hormones) into blood plasma. Ex) pancreas, posterior pituitary gland.

pancreas, liver

Mixed glands have both endo and exo function. Examples:

major endocrine glands

hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, pineal gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes

multifunctional organs

Heart, stomach, duodenum, placenta, kidneys, adipose, liver

Catecholamine, indolamines, thyroid hormone, peptide

What are the four types of amino acid based hormones?

epi, NE, dopamine

What are examples of catecholamines?

melatonin, serotonin, histamine

What are examples of indolamines?

triiodothyronine, thyroxine

What are examples of thyroid hormone? Contains iodine, hydrophobic so dissolves poorly in h2O, can cross cell membranes.

insulin, oxytocin, glucagon

What are examples of peptide hormones?

sex, adrenal

What are the two types of steroid hormones, all of which are derived from cholesterol?

testosterone, estrogens progesterone

What are the sex steroids?

cortisol, corticosterone, DHEA, aldosterone

What are the adrenal steroids?

second messenger

What mechanism of action do all amino acid based hormones use since they are hydrophilic and cannot cross the cell membrane?

cAMP, cGMP, Calcium ions

What are some examples of second messengers, which are intracellular?

epi

cAMP is directly associated with _______. If one increases, both do, and vice versa.

caffeine, theophyline

What can block the inactivation process of cAMP?

nitrous oxide

cGMP is directly associated with _____ ______. If one increases, both do, and vice versa.

sildenafil

What can block the inactivation process of cGMP?

oxytocin

Ca ions as second messengers are associated with __________.

direct gene activation

All steroids and thyroid hormones use what mechanism of action of hormones?

Graves dz

Hyperthyroidism is called

cretinism myxedema, endemic goiter

hypothyroidism can result in..

oxytocin, ADH

What two hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary?

hypothalamus, posterior pituitary

ADH is manufactured in the _________, but is released in the ______ _________.

Oxytocin

___________ is responsible for uterine contractions during labor, lactation- let down reflex, female affection and pair bonding.

Prolactin

________ is released from ant pitiuitary and is responsible for production of breastmilk.

ADH

Water retention hormone

alcohol

What suppresses the release of ADH?

preterm labor

ADH in dehydrated pregnant women may stimulate....

adh

________ is important in male pair bonding and female sex drive.

Thyroid stimulating hormone

released by ant. pit., stimulates thyroid to release T3/T4

adrenal corticotropic hormone

released by ant. pit. , stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol and croticosterone

follicle stimulating hormone

released by ant pit. stimulates testes to produce sperm for spermatogenesis

lutenizing hormone

released by anterior pituitary, stimulates testes to produce testosterone

growth hormone

released by anterior pituitary, promotes tissue growth

antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

released by post pit, made in hypothalamus, stimulates thirst and signals kidneys to retain WATER. Also male bonding

t3 and t4

released by thyroid, increases metabolism, O2 consumption, heat, affect ,HR, BP, and appetite

calcitonin

Releases by parafollicular cells in thyroid, decreases Ca in ECF by depositing more Ca into bone

parathyroid hormone

released by parathyroid gland, increases Ca in ECF by freeing Ca and increasing Ca retention in kidneys and calcitrial production

melatonin

released by pineal gland, regulates sleep/wakefulness, mood

atrial naturetic peptide

released by heart, simulates kidneys to EXCRETE Na and water in order to regulate P, lower blood volume, and decrease stretching of heart walls.

Epi

released by adrenal medulla, symp. nerv sys response to stress, increases HR and force, BP, and bl. glu. levels

cortisol, corticosterone

released by adrenal cortex, responsible for wakefulness, regulates metabolism by increasing appetie, bl. glu, and weight. Immunosuppressant and response to stress.

aldosterone

released by adrenal cortex, promotes retention of Na AND h2o by kidneys to increase BP or maintain it

DHEA

released by adrenal cortex, responsible for male embryonic development and female sex drive

testosterone

released by testes, influences male secondary sex characteristics and sex drive

estrogens

released by ovaries, regulates menstrual cycle or pregnancy, prepares for pregnancy with uterine lining/ova growth, responsible for female development of secondary sex characteristics.

erythropoeitin

Released by mainly kidney but also liver, increases RBC production in bone marrow

ghrelin

released by stomach, signals brain to increase appetite when stomach is empty

secretin

released by duodenum, stimulates pancreas to increase bicarbonate and water to neutralize stomach acids

cholecystokinin

released by duodenum, stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes to breakdown foods for absorption.

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

released by hypothalamus, causes ant pit to release FSH and LH.

thyrotropin releasing hormone

released by hypothalamus, causes ant pit to release TSH

corticotropin releasing hormone

released by hypothalamus, causes ant pit to release ACTH

dopamine

released by hypothalamus, inhibits prolactin secretion from ant. pituitary

growth hormone releasing hormone

released by hypothalamus, stimulates ant pit to release GH

renin

released by kidneys, promotes release of Angiotensin II which increases BP

angiotensin II

released by liver, potent vasoconstrictor increases BP, stimulates adrenal cortex to release aldosterone

insulin

released by B cells in pancreas, stimulates increased uptake of glu by most cells to decrease bl glu

glucagon

released by Alpha cell sin pancreas, stimulates skel musc and liver to release glu to increase bl. sugar. Adipocytes release fatty acids.

human chorionic gonadotropin

released by placenta, maintains preg for 3 mo after implantation is successful

gastrin

released by stomach, stimulates gastric mucosa to make/release more acid when food is present

leptin

released by adipocytes, stimulates brain to decrease appetite when adipocytes are engorged, decreases wt.

plasma and formed elements

What are the two main components of blood?

plasma

extracellular fluid, a mix of water, electrolytes, proteins, enzymes, nutrients, waste, hormones and gasses

RBC, WBC, Platelets

What are the formed elements of blood?

serum

The liquid portion of blood tat remains after clotting (plasma minus clotting proteins & contains immunoglobulins)

albumin, fibrinogen, immunoglobulins

What are the three main proteins in blood plasma?

albumin

most abundant plasma protein. Responsible for capillary reabsorption, plays imp. role in osmotic balance. Made by liver

fibrinogen

precursor of fibrin that will help form clots. Made by liver.

immunoglobulins

antibodies, part of immune defense system

hematocrit

separates plasma and formed elements by centrifugation, formed elements are heavier. Plasma on top, then buffy coat of WBC, then RBC on bottom.

42 to 52

adult male hematocrit normal range

37 to 48

adult female hematocrit normal range

anemia

low RBC count/ low hematocrit

inadequate erythropoiesis, hemorrhagic anemia, hemolytic anemia

What are the 3 causes of anemia

not enough vit b12, iron deficiency anemia, kidney failure, aplastic anemia

What can contribute to inadequate erythropoiesis/hemoglobin synthesis?

malaria, certain drugs, transfusion rxn

What can cause hemolytic anemia?

tissue hypoxia (necrosis, shortness of breath, lethargy)
low blood viscosity (increased HR, decreased BP)

What are the effects of anemia?

agglutination

clumping of RBC, block bl. vessels (hypoxia), or rupture, free hemoglobin can irreversibly damage kidneys/cause death

severe anemia and toxic brain syndrome

Hemolytic disease of newborn can cause.......
(Rh- mother, Rh+ second child)

granulocytes

type of leukocytes that have visible granules in cytoplasm. Eosinophils, basophils or neutrophils.

eosinophils

Pink orange granulocytes w/ bilobed nucleus. 2-4% of WBC.

basophils

abundant dark violet granulocytes, nucleus is hidden. Least common WBC, <1% of WBC.

neutrophils

very light stained granulocytes, multilobed nucleus, Most abundant WBC 60-70%.

lymphoctes

round nucleus, uniformally dark, variable amount of cytoplasm, no granules. 2nd most abundant WBC at 25-33%.

monocytes

large cell w/ horseshoe or kidney shaped nucleus, abundant amount of cytoplasm, no granules. 3-8% WBC

Neutrophils

Increase in
bacterial
infections.
Release antibacterial chemicals (hypochlorous acid)
Phagocytosis of dead bacteria

Eosinophils

Increase in
parasitic
infections and
allergies
.
-Phagocytosis of antibody-antigen complexes, allergens, and inflammatory chemicals.
-contain enzymes that destroy parasites (worms)

Basophils

Increase in
chicken pox, sinusitis, and diabetes
.
Once in tissues, they are called Mast Cells, which release histamine when exposed to foreign material in order to remove it. (vasodilation, irritation of nerves, water and mucus secretion)

mast cells

Basophils in tissue are called...

Lymphocytes

Increase in diverse infections and immune responses. have several subtypes.

T lymphocytes

type of lymphocyte: destroy cancer cells, virally infected cells, and foreign cells. Cell-mediated immunity.

T helper

type of lymphocyte: present foreign material to other immune cells to signal attack. Target for HIV.

B lymphocytes

type of lymphocyte: make antibodies that react with foreign material presented by T helper cells. Humoral immunity.

Monocytes

Increase in viral infections and inflammation. When present in tissue, they are called macrophages.
-Phagocytosis, then present foreign antibodies to other immune system cells for them to attack.
HIV attacks these

macrophages

Monocytes in the tissue are called....

leukopenia

low WBC count. Caused by radiation, poisons, certain infectious dz (HIV). Effects: increased risk for infection.

leukemia

High WBC count due to cancer

leukocytosis

High WBC count noncancerous

coagulation

defense against bleeding. Needs to be quick and accurate. Fibrinogen is activated by the enzyme thrombin and forms fibrin, which is insoluble and thread like for clots.

intrinsic

___________ factors initiate coagulation from factors (platelets) in the blood itself.

extrinsic

__________ factors initiate coagulation from factors in vessel walls.

Warfarin

Vit K antagonist. Blocks vit K which is needed for clotting factors, used originally as rat poison.

Heparin

anticoagulant that inhibits thrombin formation and acts fast

antithrombin

produced by liver, prevents clotting

hemophilia

genetic lack of clotting factor, primarily occurs in males bc gene is sex linked. Used to be tx w/ plasma until HIV/AIDS epidemic. Clotting factors now produced by recombinant bacteria.

embolism

free floating clot traveling in a vessel

thrombosis

abnormal clot in unbroken vessel. Most likely to happen in a leg vein of an inactive person. (DVT--->Pulmonary embolism)