flows against the dominant; media resisting the dominant idea
How is the mediated communication generated around diasporic groups key to understanding contra-flows?
Migration of people can test our borders and the flow of communication
In what two ways is mediation a political process?
1. Control is denied or restricted
2. Resistance to dominant forms of representation
How do diasporas generally appear in mainstream media?
Stereotypical and alienating images of diasporas
How does media representation involve both participation and recognition?
requires participation from the group so playing in the stereotypical roles may lead to change the stereotype
How are contra-flows created at the transnational, local, and national levels?
Transnational: through internet and satellite broadcasting
Local: through diasporic cultures in the small space
National: diasporic groups flick between mainstream national channels
What is diasporic consciousness?
A sense of relationship across dispersed domains that give members of a diasporic community multiple reference points through which to identify with both a homeland and their country of residence; what's created isn't just the sum of the two parts but a whole new thing and identity
In what three ways was diasporic consciousness seen in the British Sikh community?
1. Reaffirming pride in Indian heritage
2. Evoking romance and longing
3. Reinforcing family values and a sense of kinship
What is the clash of civilizations?
Wars would be fought between different cultures (Hutchinson)
How is the Internet a rage enabler? How is this seen in the 2006 Danish cartoon controversy?
Process of spreading the rage is faster with instantaneous global reach; internet becomes a venue for anger and its content may make the angry even angrier
What are the two effects of Al Jazeera's introduction of energetic and lively debate in its programs?
Engage and inform how corrupt politics are
What are the five dimensions of global cultural flows?
Ethnoscapes-- any way people can move around the world; because easier movement our imagination/possibilities for future may not be limited
Technoscapes-- fluid nature of technology
Finanescapes-- global capital moves around much more rapidly
Mediascapes-- viewing the world through the media; many views from all over the world readily available
Ideoscapes-- ideoscapes we occupy create a connection between things we hold like freedom, democracy, rights; media is often a source of our ideas
How is imagination a social practice?
tells our stories; imagination is a cultural thing now; we create industries that create and tell us our stories for us
What is a network? What is the major advantage and disadvantage of a network?
Network- set of interconnected nodes
Adv- flexible and adaptable
Disadv- difficulty coordinating functions
What are the relationships that form social structure?
Experience- sex and gender relationships (patriarchal)
Power (actual or symbolic violence; force to get people to do what we want)
What are the three fundamental features of the new economy?
Informational- how well they process info and generate new knowledge
Global- interconnected network
Networked- companies linked together; companies have subsets
What is the "real virtuality"?
Network provides the symbols, icons, stories, through which we think and exist and learn to think about ourselves (network provides materials) but it's not a real thing, its virtual
What is timeless time?
the idea that through the use of technology we have done as much as we can to annihilate time because we don't want it as a limitation on anything we do
What is space of flows?
Network changed the way we think of space; knowledge isn't limited by geography anymore
What is the only common language in the network society?
What is the only shared meaning in the network society?
To be a node
What is a bibanda?
Shacks set up in slum areas; audience sit on basic wooden benches, with video screens to watch with a VCR or DVD player; not talking about locally made movies
What is local appropriation?
The process of communities and groups selecting, adopting and adapting communications tools so that they become rooted in their own social, economic and cultural processes
What is audience response theory?
Active audience and consumers (in order for bibanda to work)
What is narrative transportation theory?
the idea that our enjoyment of a movie and other media comes from our personal engagement with a film and to be able to be immersed in a story in the film
How are Ugandan VJs an example of local appropriation?
VJs business possible bc they help the audience understand;
The VJs may not create exactly the same translation; they are there to help audience understand the film by translating it into their cultural context
What is product placement?
Commercial insertions within a particular media program intended to heighten the visibility of a brand, type of product, or service
What is cultural capital?
Relates to a person's education, employment experiences, travel opportunities, and family background
How is product placement in telenovelas related to development communication?
Use product placement to educate the public about products and behaviors
For fans outside of Japan, what kind of information did Japanese dramas serve as repositories for?
Cultural sink or hole in culture where something can be put
How is fansubbing part of a bottom-up approach to media globalization?
Fansubs are creating content from the "bottom" of society, rather than media companies creating conent that they send down (top down approach) to consumers-- fansubbers are creating a contraflow
How do fansubbers differ from bootleggers in their relationship to the media companies that produce the content?
Fansubbers have strict code of ethics that they adhere to that most make the argument that they are trying to fill the void since the content isn't available here so they make it available bc I believe access to entertainment is important. But they also advocate for official release
Bootleggers are looked at warily by fansubs bc they are just doing it for the money.
What is brand positioning?
The practice of segmentation in a crowded marketplace; make your brand stand out to certain peoples
What is the most important rule for branding?
Get there first
What nation is the leading exporter of program formats?
What are super-indies?
when these independent production companies merge and acquire each other you get bigger companies
How does the US function as a global shop window?
If you can make your format popular and succeed in the US, then it is a really big advertiser around the world and will most likely do well