Ethics Test

Moral disagreement entails that morality is not objective


The view that some moral rules really are correct just because a society is deeply committed to it

Cultural Relativism

For beauty to be objective, we must know the necessary criteria for ranking beautiful things


Is cultural relativism consistent with ethical objectivism


Moral agreement entails that morality is objective


If there is at least one thing that is objectively right, then morality is objective


If there is at least one objective truth, then truth is objective


What argument against ethical subjectivism states the following: If subjectivism is correct, then I know what is right so long as I know what I approve of. Yet, what if I don't know what I morally approve of? That cannot make sense, because your approval

Questioning of Own Commitments

What argument states that if a person's deepest beliefs are true by definition, then they cannot change for the better or worse based on the logic applied in subjective relativism

Moral Progress

The view that there are no moral truths at all

Moral Nihilism

The view that some moral rules really are correct just because a person is deeply committed to it

Ethical Subjectivism

If there is at least one thing that is objectively good, then value is objective


Is moral infallibility an advantage or a disadvantage en ethical theory


The view that some moral standards are objectively correct and that some moral claims are objectively ture

Ethical Objectivism

If cultural relativism is true then which fo the following individuals would be morally right or morally wrong

Adolf Hitler - Morally Right
Jesus - Morally Wrong
Martin Luther King, Jr Morally Wrong

What is one implication of ethical subjectivism

Moral Infallibility

Which of the following views can account for moral progress

Ethical Objectivism


A culture within a culture

Is ethical subjectivism consistent with ethical objectivism


If there is at least one thing that is objectively beautiful, then beauty is objective


Different cultures have different moral codes, therefore, there is no objective morality


The view that normal moral utterances are neither true nor false but are instead expressions of attidues


In ethics, the study of the meaning and logical structure of moral claims


Laws, traditions, customs, and cultures are immune to moral criticism


Socrates believes a life worth living focuses solely eternal reward in salvation


There must always be a conflict between faith and reason


Valuable only as a means to an end

Extrinsically / Instrumentally Valuable

This asserts that moral claims apply to ALL

Universal Aspect

When equals are not treated equally, this is a violation of

The Principle of Impartiality

Asserts that we might have to obey the laws of our city / state / country

Dominance of Moral Norms

Asserts that things are good / bad or right / wrong merely because God says so

Divine Command Theory

Valuable in itself

Intrinsically / Inherently Valuable

We are all morally fallible


In ethics, the study of what we ought to do, how we ought to live, and what duties and obligations we have

Normative Ethics

We can have moral obligations that are impossible to fulfill


Socrates' student was _______, and eventually that student would go on to teach _________ after Socrates' death

Plato , Aristotle

In ethics, the study of what is good and bad and why these things are good or bad


Asks whether things are good because God wills them to be so or God wills them because they are good

Euthyphro Dilemma

Normative Ethics

(Opinion, compare) study of principles, rules, theories that guide our actions and judgments
Ultimate purpose to establish soundness of moral norms, embodied in comprehensive moral system

Lower vs Higher Pleasures


Hedonic Calculus (also know how to apply it)

Quantifies happiness and handles necessary calculations
Net Hapiness = happiness minus unhappiness
7 criteria: intensity, duration, certainty, remoteness, fecundity, purity, extend (IDCRFP)
Does not mean act must benefit greatest number of people

Intrinsic/ Inherent Value

Valuable in themselves (happiness, pleasure, virtue)

Extrinsic/Instrumental Value

Valuable as a means to an end (gas for vehicles)


Student of Socrates
Wants Socrates to leave jail


Believes own opinions
Does not care about others opinions


Athenian philosopher, student of Socrates


Greek philosopher students of Plato

Greatest Happiness Principle

Principle of utility" - maximize pleasure over pain

Moral Nihilism

the view that there are no moral truths at all

Ethical Objectivism

The view that there is at least one objective moral standard

Ethical Subjectivism

the view that the ultimate moral authority is the individual or the "subject

Arguments against relativism (there are several)

1) Implies moral infallibility - cultures can't be wrong
2) Social reformers would always be wrong, culture final authority
3) If you hold different view from culture, you are wrong
4) Cultures cannot be critized by outside
5) Progress cannot exist. No ne

Arguments against utilitarianism (there are several)

Internally inconsistent - rules best when amended with qualitifications
"Do not except to maximize utility"
Leads to anxiety
Leads to presuming culture result

Preeminence of Reason

Requires critical reasoning grounded in logic

Principle of Impartility

All persons equal. Reasons to act: heart attack patient

Dominance of Moral Norms

Not all norms are moral


Ability or capacity of a good or service to be useful and give satisfaction to someone.

Divine Command Theory

a theory asserting that the morally right action is the one that God commands


Socrates questions him about the definition of piety to which he answers that he wills all actions but humans have free will

Faith and Reason

implies that people can and should learn to think logically for themselves despite the natural tendencies of the mind to do otherwise

Valid Logic vs. Invalid Logic


Moral Infallibility

Subjectivism denies can be false or immoral
Morally in eyes of beholder everyone seeing things equally well

Principle of Utility

Greatest good for the greatest number

Qualitive and Quantitative Pleasures

Bentham - quantity
Mills - quantity and quality

Rule vs Act Utilitarianism

Rule - morally right if rules align with action
Act - morally right if it produces most amount of good

Value Theory

The area of ethics concerned with identifying what is valuable in its own right, and explaining the nature of well-being.

Which philosopher truly pioneered the concept of utilitarianism first?

Jeremy Bentham

Pleasure minus pain


Maximize pleasure over pain

The Greatest Happy Pricinciple

Matching Pt 1

Bentham= Pleasures are only Quantitive...Mills=Pleasures are quantitive and qualitative.

Matching pt 2

Consequentialism=Morally, all that matters are the Consequences
Non-Consequentialism= Morally, consequences are not all that matters.

rule utlitarianism focuses on rules that, if _________ complied with would lead to the greatest total utility.


If pleasure A is qualitatively greater than pleasure B then _______of pleasure B will be equal one unit of pleasure A.

No amount

According to Mill, a large amount of lower pleasure is preferred over a small amount of higher pleasures.


Example: A hospital is running out of space and resources during the pandemic. A doctor knows that several patients are terminal and likely will die in the next few weeks. However, they are using valuable resources at the hospital and costing their famili


Example: It is World War II. You live in Amsterdam. One day your close friend tells you in confidence that they have been housing a Jewish family. You swear on your honor that you will not tell anyone else. However, about a week later, the nazi start susp


Consequentialism looks for decisions that yield greatest balance of benefits over drawbacks. The term for this is __________.