Stages 17-18 CLC Culture


became a Roman province after the defeat of Cleopatra in 31 BC; most important supplier of grain to Rome


capital city founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC; world center of culture and learning

Alexander the Great

ruler of Macedonia and founder of Alexandria in 331 BC


three-tiered marble lighthouse in the Great Harbor of Alexandria; could seen from 70 miles away; one of the wonders of the ancient world

official language of Alexandria



Alexandrian scholar who first proposed that the earth revolves around the sun (heliocentrism)


Alexandrian scholar who composed "Elements," a geography textbook used until relatively recent times


university in Alexandria that had lecture halls, science labs, and the largest library in the ancient world

Great Library

located in Alexandria; largest library in the ancient world, with over half a million volumes

Cleopatra's needles

two obelisks that originally stood in front of the Caesareum in Alexandria; now in New York and London


a rectangular stone pillar with a pyramid-shaped top; used as a monument or landmark


temple in Alexandria begun by Cleopatra for her lover, Mark Antony, but completed by the emperor Augustus, who dedicated it to himself

Royal Quarter

one square mile in the city of Alexandria that contained government offices and the Library and Museum

Canopus Street

main street of ancient Alexandria that was over 100 feet wide; larger than any street in other provinces


substance made of super-heated sand, plant ash, or lime, that first appeared in Egypt around 1500 BC


early form of "paper" made of flattened reeds from the River Nile


naval battle in 31 BC that marked the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Antony by Octavian (aka the future emperor Augustus)

Mark Antony

one-time ally of Octavian who was defeated by him at the battle of Actium in 31 BC


last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt; lover of Julius Caesar and then Mark Antony; committed suicide by snakebite after she and Antony were defeated at Actium in 31 BC


Alexander the Great's lieutenant; ruled Alexandria after Alexander's death; his descendants ruled Egypt for 100 years, until the battle of Actium


stone figure of a creature having the head of a human and the body of a lion; the Great Sphinx of Giza is approximately 100 miles from Alexandria


author of "The Golden Ass," a Roman novel that ends with its narrator's initiation into the cult of Isis


specially initiated followers of the goddess Isis


main room, or sanctuary, of a Roman temple


special rattle used during worship of Isis

festival of Isis

Alexandrian festival on March 5 that featured a procession carrying a statue of Isis from her temple to the Great Harbor in order to bless the grain ships sailing to Rome


picture writing used especially by the Egyptians


brother of Isis and Osiris; murdered Osiris and scattered his body parts around the earth


Egyptian goddess with a cat's head


Egyptian god with a hawk's head; son of Isis and Osiris


Egyptian god of the underworld; husband of Isis and father of Horus; depicted in Egyptian art with green skin


Egyptian goddess of fertility and magic; wife of Osiris and mother of Horus; earthly form was that of a cat


Greco-Egyptian god of the underworld and abundance; name represents the combination of the gods Osiris and Apis

peasant farmers

basis of Egyptian society; responsible for producing large amounts of grain to supply to Rome; also responsible for repairing dams

Nile River

major river in Egypt; seasonal floods cause the land to become extremely fertile


Latin term for a bathhouse


process invented in the first century BC in the eastern Mediterranean that made the production of glass vessels cheaper and faster

ribbon glass

process of making glass objects that involved melting sticks of differently colored glass over a shaped mold


process of making glass objects that involved melting small pieces of colored glass to produce a flower-like pattern; name is Italian for "thousand flowers


ruler of ancient Egypt