A&P II middle turn review heart, blood , artery and veins


Type A �antigen A on RBCs
Type B �antigen B on RBCs
Type AB �both antigen A and antigen B on RBCs; known as universal recipient
Type O �neither antigen A nor antigen B on RBCs; known as universal donor


All blood cell formation takes place inside bones, specifically in the red bone marrow. Some blood cells leave the bone marrow and complete the process of hematopoiesis in lymph tissue. All blood cells originate from undifferentiated stem cells. In the bo

Serous pericardium has two layers

parietal and visceral layer or epicardium

Mechanical devices that permit the flow of blood in one direction only are called


Which of the following is not a formed element found in the blood?

plasma is not a formed element,
red blood cell,
white blood cell ,
platelet , are formed element found in the blood.


the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood; Is used to determine the volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.

The molecule that makes up 95% of the dry weight of each red blood cell and is responsible for the red pigment is---

hemoglobin; a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates; It molecule comprises four subunits, each containing an iron atom bound to a heme group.

Erythrocytes begin their maturation sequence in red bone marrow from nucleated cells known as:

hematopoietic stem cells; An immature cell that can develop into all types of blood cells, such as white , red, and platelets.

A glycoprotein hormone that is secreted to increase oxygen concentration in the tissues is


All of the following are granulocytes except


Neutrophils are highly mobile and phagocytic. They migrate out of blood vessels and into tissue spaces. This process is called


A decrease in the amount of white blood cells is called


Platelets play an important role in

blood clotting

The term blood type refers to the type of blood cell


A disease that develops as a result of the reaction of a mother's Rh antibodies with her Rh-positive baby is

erythroblastosis fetalis.

All of the following are components critical to coagulation except

none of the above; all of these components are critical to coagulation or clotting. Correct

A natural constituent of blood, acts as an antithrombin and prevents clots from forming in vessels.

Heparin; it is used to treat and prevent deep vein thrombosis.

The physiological mechanism that dissolves clots is known as

fibrinolysis; the enzymatic breakdown of the fibrin in blood clots

In the extrinsic pathway of stage 1 of the clotting mechanism, chemicals released from damaged tissues trigger the cascade of events that ultimately result in the formation of

prothrombin activator

The heart has its own special covering, a loose-fitting inextensible sac called the


The bulk of the heart wall is the thick, contractile middle layer called the


The type of membranous tissue that lines the heart and blood vessels is the


Atria are often called _____ because they receive blood from vessels called veins.

receiving chambers

The heart valves that are located where the trunk of the pulmonary artery joins the right ventricle and where the aorta joins the left ventricle are called

semilunar valves

The free edges of the atrioventricular valves are anchored to the

papillary muscles

After blood leaves the lungs and returns to the heart, it enters the

left atrium.

From which vessels do myocardial cells receive blood?

coronary arteries

Which division of the autonomic nervous system sends fibers to the heart?


The four structures that compose the conduction system of the heart are the

SA node, AV node, AV bundle, and Purkinje fibers.

The normal cardiac impulse that initiates mechanical contraction of the heart arises in the

SA node

A graphic record of the heart's electrical activity is a(n)


The normal ECG is composed of all of the following except a

P wave.
QRS complex.
T wave.
E wave. Correct

A type of abnormal heart sound that may signify incomplete closing of the valves is

a heart murmur.

cardiovascular system, over view

The cardiovascular system consists of blood, blood vessels, and the heart. The pumping action of the heart moves blood through the blood vessels. Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to tissue cells, and carries away metabolic wastes, including carbon di

pulmonary circulation

In pulmonary circulation, the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it picks up oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. The oxygenated blood returns to the heart which then pumps it into systemic circulation.

systemic circulation

In systemic circulation, the heart pumps oxygenated blood into the aorta which branches into arteries that enter tissues and organs. The blood delivers oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide. The deoxygenated blood enters veins which eventually drain into the

Conduction system of the heart

Normally, the heart beats 60 to 100 times per minute, triggered by its electrical conduction system. In this system, the sinoatrial node is the heart's natural pacemaker. The SA node generates an electrical impulse that travels through internodal pathway


The electrocardiogram is a graphic record of the heart's electrical activity or its conduction of impulses. The P wave represents depolarization of the atria. P wave abnormalities often reflect atrial enlargement. The QRS complex represents depolarization

Four valves of the heart

Normally, four valves open and close to keep blood moving in one direction through the heart. From the right atrium, venous blood passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. From the right ventricle, blood moves through the pulmonic valve


Oxygenation, or oxygen saturation, refers to the concentration of oxygen in the blood. Normal blood oxygen levels are between 95 and 100 percent. Oxygen levels below 90 percent are considered low. Oxygen levels below 80 percent may compromise organ functi

blood cells

All blood cells have specific functions. Erythrocytes outnumber all other cells and carry oxygen to different tissue cells in the body. Platelets, which are fragments of megakaryocytes, aid in blood clotting. White blood cells serve various protective fun


All blood cell formation takes place inside bones, specifically in the red bone marrow. Some blood cells leave the bone marrow and complete the process of hematopoiesis in lymph tissue. All blood cells originate from undifferentiated stem cells. In the bo


Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, are formed through a process called erythropoiesis. "Erythro-" means "red." "Poiesis" means "making." In the red bone marrow, all blood cells or cell fragments come from an undifferentiated, or unspecialized, hematopoieti

During pregnancy, what happens to the oxygenated blood returned from the placenta via the umbilical vein?

It flows into the inferior vena cava

During fetal circulation, what opening in the septum, between the right and left atria, directs most of the blood so that it bypasses the fetal lungs?

foramen ovale

The _____ drains much of the superficial leg and foot.

great saphenous vein

Renal veins drain blood from the


Blood from the brachiocephalic vein drains into the

head, neck, and upper extremity.

The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the


A few arteries open into other branches of the same or other arteries. This is called

arterial anastomosis

The _____ is(are) supplied with blood from the left subclavian artery.

head and upper extremities

In _____, blood moves from veins to other veins or arteries to other arteries without passing through an intervening capillary network.

vascular anastomoses

Blood flow from the heart through blood vessels to all parts of the body and back to the heart is referred to as _____ circulation.


Which sphincters function as regulatory valves that reduce the flow of blood through a network of capillaries when they contract and constrict the arterioles?

precapillary sphincters

Which layer of the larger blood vessels is made up of endothelium?

tunica intima

The outermost layer of the larger blood vessels is the tunica


Microscopic vessels that carry blood from small arteries to small veins are


Which types of arteries are also called conducting arteries and include the aorta?

elastic arteries


is the fluid portion of whole blood.

Red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets

are the formed elements of blood.

Blood volume influenced by

by is a person's gender, age, body composition, and by the method of measurement.

Component percentages of

of normal hematocrit are plasma, 55%, and packed cell volume (hematocrit), 45%.

The red pigment found in RBCs

RBCs is hemoglobin. The normal range in men is 5,500,000/mm3, and it is 4,800,000/mm3 in women.

Granulocytic leukocytes:

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

Agranulocytic leukocytes

Lymphocytes and monocytes

The normal percentages of the different WBCs in a differential count are:

neutrophils, 65% to 75%; eosinophils, 2% to 5%; basophils, 0.5% to 1%; lymphocytes, 20% to 25%; and monocytes, 3% to 8%. Refer to Table 27-3 in the textbook.


cellular defense-phagocytosis of small pathogenic microorganisms, life span hours to 3days


Secretes heparin and histamine, life span hours to 3 days


cellular defense- attack of large pathogenic microorganisms and parasitic worms, help regulate allergic reaction and other inflammatory response.


A type of white blood cell that make antibodies to fight off infections. cellular defense , in immune system response and regulation , B and T cells.


a large phagocytic white blood cell with a simple oval nucleus and clear, grayish cytoplasm; capable of migrating out of the blood to enter tissue space as macrophage - an aggressive phagocytic cell capable ingesting bacteria, cellular debris, and cancero


releases clot-activating substances and helps in formation of actual blood clot by forming platelet plugs.

. Type A

A antigen, anti-B antibody

Type B

: B antigen, anti-A antibody

Type AB

A and B antigens, no antibodies. universal recipient.

Type O

universal donor, A and B antibodies.

Extrinsic pathway and intrinsic pathway

are the basic coagulation steps.


1, Stop bleeding and prevents loss of vital body fluid
2, sencondary role in defending against bacterial attacks

platelet plug formation steps

1. platelet adhesion
2. platelet release reaction
3. platelet aggregation


Thrombocytopenia is a decrease in platelet count. This also affects the body's ability to form a clot at the first step of the process (forming the platelet plug).

The three major types of blood vessels

the artery, vein, and capillary.

The walls of the arteries and veins have three layers

The middle layer is thicker in arteries. The inner layer of the veins contains valves. The capillaries have only one layer (endothelium

the fetal circulation but not part of the adult circulation

Umbilical arteries, placenta, umbilical vein, ductus venosus, foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus are part of

Function of placenta

Structure attached to uterine wall that facilitates the exchange of oxygen and other substances between maternal and fetal blood. Function of umbilical vessels: Veins return oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus; arteries carry fetal blood to th


ventricular repolarization. The QRS complex reflects the electrical activity during ventricular depolarization. The P wave reflects atrial depolarization, and the T wave shows the activity during

13. The principle structures of the heart's conduction system are

the sinoatrial node, AV node, AV bundle, and Purkinje system.

15. P wave: Represents depolarization of the atria. QRS complex: Represents depolarization of the ventricles. T wave: Reflects repolarization of the ventricles.


Atrial systole

: Emptying of blood out of the atria into the ventricles

Isovolumetric ventricular contraction:

Period between closure of the semilunar valves and opening of the AV valves


The semilunar valves open and blood is ejected from the heart

isovolumetric ventricular relaxation

: Period between closure of the semilunar valves and opening of the AV valves

Passive ventricular filling:

Return of venous blood increases intraatrial pressure until the AV valves are forced open and blood rushes into the relaxing ventricles.

9. Myocardial cells receive blood by way of the right and left coronary arteries. They branch off of the aorta at its very beginning and are its first branches. After blood has passed through capillary beds in the myocardium, it enters a series of cardiac

coronary sinus.

. Right atrium: Tricuspid valve. Right ventricle: Tricuspid and pulmonary semilunar valves. Left atrium: Bicuspid valve. Left ventricle: Bicuspid valve and aortic semilunar valve.

The four chambers of the heart are right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle

The heart attains its adult shape and weight between

between puberty and 25 years of age.

The heart lies in the mediastinum just below the body of the sternum between points of attachment of the second through sixth ribs.

Approximately two-thirds of the heart's mass is to the left of the midline of the body, and one-third is to the right.

The three major types of blood vessels

artery, vein, capillary

The placenta is shed from the body with part of the umbilical vessels attached. The sections of these vessels become fibrous cords. The ductus venosus becomes the ligamentum venosum. The foramen ovale normally becomes functionally closed soon after a newb

new born takes the first breath

The coronary arteries are the major blood supply vessels for the muscle cells in the heart. Kyle's symptoms are typically related to the heart. The angiogram is a tool for viewing the coronary arteries.

the coronary arteries

You may have learned the names of the arteries from the heart outward. Now, trace your path backward.


The left ventricle contains the most muscle tissue of all the chambers because it has to generate the most force on contraction. More muscle tissue means more oxygen and nutrients are required, which must be supplied by the coronary arteries.

the left ventricle

Arterial anastomoses

provide detour routes for blood to travel in the event of obstruction of a main artery. The incidence of arterial anastomoses increases as distance from the heart increases, and smaller branches tend to anastomose more often than larger vessels. Veins ana

The three layers of tissue that make up the wall of the heart are epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.

Epicardium: Protection. Myocardium: Contraction. Endocardium: Lining of the interior of the myocardial wall; covers the trabeculae.


Fibrous pericardium�tough, loose-fitting inextensible sac
Serous pericardium�parietal layer lies inside the fibrous pericardium, and visceral layer (epicardium) adheres to the outside of the heart
Pericardial space�lies between visceral and parietal layer

Valves of the heart

Semilunar (SL) valves �half-moon-shaped flaps growing out from the lining of the pulmonary trunk and aorta; prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles from the aorta and pulmonary trunk
Pulmonary valve �at entrance of the pulmonary trunk
Aortic v

Coronary circulation

blood supply of heart tissue
Coronary arteries �myocardial cells receive blood from the right and left coronary arteries
First branches to come off the aorta
Ventricles receive blood from branches of both right and left coronary arteries

Coronary arteries

Right coronary artery is dominant in approximately 50% of all hearts and the left in about 20%; in approximately 30%, neither coronary artery is dominant

Cardiac veins

After going through cardiac veins, blood enters the coronary sinus to drain into the right atrium
Several veins drain directly into the right atrium

Cardiac plexuses

located near the arch of the aorta, made up of the combination of sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers

Most fibers end in the SA node, but some end in the AV node and in the atrial myocardium

the SA node acts as the heart's pacemaker


Carry blood away from heart�all arteries except pulmonary artery carry oxygenated blood

Elastic or conducting arteries �largest in body

aorta and its major branches
Able to stretch without injury
Accommodate surge of blood when heart contracts and able to recoil when ventricles relax

Muscular or distributing arteries

Smaller in diameter than elastic arteries
Muscular layer is thick
Examples: brachial, gastric, superior mesenteric

Arterioles or resistance vessels

Smallest arteries
Important in regulating blood flow to end organs


Short connecting vessel between true arteriole and 20 to 100 capillaries
Encircled by precapillary sphincters


primary exchange vessels
Microscopic vessels
Carry blood from arterioles to venules� together, arterioles, capillaries, and venules constitute the microcirculation

True capillaries

receive blood flowing from metarteriole with input regulated by precapillary sphincters, actaula gas exchange.

Continuous capillaries

have a wall where the endothelial cells fit very tightly together.

Fenestrated capillaries

have pores in vessel wall; found in kidneys, intestines, and endocrine glands


Large lumen and tortuous course
Absent or incomplete basement membrane
Very porous�permit migration of cells into or out of vessel lumen; found in liver


Carry blood toward the heart
Act as collectors and as reservoir vessels; called capacitance vessels

Collagen fibers

Exhibit woven appearance.Function to strengthen and keep lumen of vessel open

Elastic fibers

Play important role in creating passive tension to help regulate blood pressure throughout the cardiac cycle

Smooth muscle tissue

Present in all segments of vascular system except capillaries
Most abundant in elastic and muscular arteries

Systemic circulation

blood flows from the left ventricle of the heart through blood vessels to all parts of the body (except gas exchange tissues of lungs) and back to the right atrium

Pulmonary circulation

�venous blood moves from right atrium to right ventricle to pulmonary artery to lung arterioles and capillaries, where gases are exchanged; oxygenated blood returns to left atrium by way of pulmonary veins; from left atrium, blood enters the left ventricl

Arterial anastomosis

anastomosis �arteries that open into other branches of the same or other arteries; incidence of arterial anastomoses increases as distance from the heart increases

Systemic veins

Veins are the ultimate extensions of capillaries; unite into vessels of increasing size to form venules and then veins
Large veins of the cranial cavity are called dural sinuses
Veins anastomose the same as arteries
Venous blood from the head, neck, upper

Hepatic portal circulation

Veins from the spleen, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and intestines send their blood to the liver by way of the hepatic portal vein
In the liver the venous blood mingles with arterial blood in the sinusoids and is eventually drained from the liver by he


- hardening of the arteries


blockage, calcified; diet, habit forming

Peripheral Vascular disease

slow blood flow in peripheral tissues


Necrotic tissue, death of tissue


- Blocked blood flow, side effect of PVD

Variocose Veins-

pooling of blood in veins


Artery becomes totally widened - ruptures


Cerebrovascular accident


- inflammation in the vein


inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation

Pulmonary Embolism

pulmonary clot

Red blood cells

Function of RBCs: Critical role of RBCs in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide depends on hemoglobin
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) �enzyme in RBCs that catalyzes a reaction that joins carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid
Carbonic acid �dissocia


A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.


Within each RBC are approximately 200 to 300 million molecules of hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is able to unite with four oxygen molecules to form oxyhemoglobin to allow RBCs to transport oxygen where it is needed
A male has a greater amount of hemoglobin than a

Macrophage cells phagocytose the aged, abnormal, or fragmented RBCs

Hemoglobin is broken down, and amino acids, iron, and bilirubin are released



Platelet plug formation

Platelets adhere to damaged endothelial lining and to each other 1 to 5 seconds after injury to vessel wall, forming a platelet plug
Temporary platelet plug is an important step in hemostasis
"Sticky platelets" form physical plug and secrete several chemi

Blood and the Whole Body

RBCs assist in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
WBCs assist in the defense mechanisms of the whole body
Platelets prevent loss of the fluid that constitutes the internal environment