Holt psychology chapter 1


the scientific study of behavior and the mental processes


any action that people can observe or measure

cognitive activities

private mental processes, such as thoughts and memories


a research method in which psychologists collect data by asking questions of people in a particular group


a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do


type of psychologists who deal with people who have psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression


type of psychologists who deal with people who have adjustment problems


type of psychologists who are involved in preparing standardized tests


type of psychologists who conduct research into basic processes, such as the functions of the nervous system of sensation and perception


type of psychologists who study the psychological effects of the environment on people's behaviors


psychologists who work within the criminal justice system


ancient greek who believed that people could learn much about themselves through introspection

wilhelm wundt

individual who established first psychology laboratory in leipzig, germany


school of psychology that is concerned with discovering the basic elements of conscious experience


school of psychology that focuses on how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment

william james

psychologist who believed that experience is a fluid and continuous stream of consciousness


school of psychology that maintains that organisms behave in certain ways because they are reinforced to do so

BF skinner

psychologists who introduced the concept of reinforcement


perspective of psychology that stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior


school of psychology that maintains that human behavior is determined by unconscious motives


perspective of psychology that emphasized the influence of biology on behavior


perspective of psychology that stresses the importance of human consciousness, self-awareness, and the capacity to make choices


perspective of psychology that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior


perspective of psychology that examines the effects of factors such as ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status on human behavior


rule or law

school psychologists

identify and help students who have problems that interfere with learning

developmental psychologist

studies physical, emotional, cognitive, and social changes that occur over a lifetime

personality psychologists

identify characteristics, or traits

industrial and organizational psychologists

focus on people and work
study the behavior of people in organizations

consumer psychologists

study the behavior of shoppers to explain and predict their behavior
assist others in applying the findings of such studies

health psychologists

examine the ways in which behavior and mental processes are related to physical health


looking within


experiences often remind us of similar experiences in the past
approach was scientific

gestalt school

school of psychology with the idea that perception of something is affected by the context in which it occurs
"shape" or "form" in german
based on the idea that perceptions are more than the sums of their parts

psychodynamic thinking

assumed that most of what exists in an individuals mind is unconscious, and consists of conflicting impulses, urges and wishes

sigmund freud

founded school of psychoanalysis
ideas that people are driven by hidden impulses and that verbal slips and dreams represent unconscious wishes

evolutionary perspective

focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental processes

learning perspective

the effects of experience on behavior

social-learning theory

suggests that people can change their environments or create new ones

ethnic group

united by their cultural heritage, rage, language, or common history