Psychology Chapter 12, Sec 2-3

personality

The trait perspective looks at the ____________ to explain our behaviors.

traits

The trait perspective states that we have enduring personal characteristics called _________.

predict; situations

Traits ________ how we will behave in different ___________.

theorists

Trait __________ are interested in what our traits are and they also want to know how we can develop new traits and how traits can be measured.

inborn

Some believe that our traits are _________ or inherited.

learners

Others believe they are __________ through experiences.

Allport, Cattell, Eysenck

The most prominent trait theorists are:
Gordon _________
Raymond ________
Hans ___________

brain

Gordon Allport believed that our personality traits are embedded in our ________.

influenced

He felt these traits were inherited but that they were also __________ by our experiences.

hierarchy

Allport tried to rank traits in a ___________ based on what traits influenced us the most.

cardinal, central, secondary

He categorized traits into __________ traits, ________ traits, and ___________ traits.

define

Cardinal traits were the traits that were what actually ________ our personality.

MOST

Cardinal traits cause us to influence our behavior in _______ situations.

Central, MANY

_________ traits are more common than cardinal traits and are the basic building blocks of personality that influence us in _______ situations.

describe

Central traits are the traits we usually use to ________ our (or someone else's) "personality

preference

Secondary traits are our __________ things we like, such as country music, short hair styles, trendy clothing.

few; superficial

Secondary traits influence behavior in relatively ____ situations and tend to be ___________.

Allport

_________ and a colleague went through a dictionary and found 18,000 words to describe personality.

4,000

They reduced this list to ___________ trait terms.

Raymond Cattell

_________ _______ spent most of his life devoted to determining if there were actually 4,000 distinctive traits in humans.

2

Cattell proposed that we have ___ basic levels of traits.

surface; source

Cattell said we have _______ traits and _______ traits.

observe

Surface traits were traits we could __________.

Source

_______ traits were at a deep level and not easily observed.

Hans Eysenck

_____ ________ constructed a much simpler model of personality.

Introversion-Extraversion, Psychoticism

Eysenck used three major trais
1. ____________- ____________
2. Neuroticism
3. ____________

outgoing; solitary

Introversion- Extraversion defines how __________ or ________ we are.

Introverts

_________ are people who prefer solitude, are reserved, and unsociable.

Extraverts

___________ are outgoing, friendly, and people-oriented.

Neuroticism

_____________- tend to be emotionally unstable.

tense; moody

Characteristics of neuroticism include _________, anxious, worrisome, restless, and _________.

relaxed

People who are low on neuroticism tend to be _________, calm, stable, and even-tempered.

antisocial

Psychoticism- tend to be cold and __________.

hostile

People who are high on this are cold, anti-social, _________.

warm

People who are low on this are _______, sensitive, and concerned about others.

measure

Eysenck developed a way to _________ where people place on these three categories of traits.

Eysenck Personality Inventory

By using what he called the ____________ __________ __________ (EPI), he placed people into one of four personality types based on your combination of traits from the three categories.
Extraverted- neurotic
Extraverted- stable
Introverted- stable
Introver

inborn

Eysenck believed that our traits were mostly _______.

introverts

He believed ________ had a nervous system that operated at a higher level of arousal than extraverts, therefore, introverts needed less stimulation to maintain an optimum level of arousal.

Big Five

The most widely accepted trait model used today is called the five-factor model (FFM) or "_____ ______" model.

Agreeableness, Conscientiousness

This is based on five broad personality factors that are consistently found when looking at personality traits.
Neuroticism- prone to worry, guilt, anxiety, unstable
Extraversion- outgoing, friendly, enthusiastic, fun-loving
_____________- sensitive, warm

contemporary

The Social- Cognitive theory is a ____________ model of personality.

expectations

The social- cognitive theory says that we must consider our ____________ for our behaviors, our values that we place on our rewards, and our learning when we imitate the behavior of others in social situations.

think; ourselves

Personality is not only our learned behavior; it includes how we _________ about ____________ and the world.

Rotter; Bandura; Mischel

The main social- cognitive psychologists are
Julian _______
Albert ___________
Walter __________

behavior

Rotter suggest that __________ depends on our expectancies or predictions of outcomes.
Ex. You study for a test and predict that the more you study, the higher your grade will be.

desired outcomes

What is the value you place on better grades? This is called the subjective value- the value on ________ __________.

locus of control

Rotter gave us the phrase, "_______ of ________"- this is the belief that we have an internal ability to control outcomes.

Bandura

___________ suggest that thoughts, behaviors, and environmental factors influence each other.

reciprocal

He called this ___________.

do; think

Bandura's studies focused on the interaction between what we ___ (our behavior) and what we _________ (our cognitions).
Ex. a motorcyclist cuts you off. Your first thought is, "I am going to teach him a lesson." Then we act aggressively. This can become a

2

Bandura said there were ___ types of expectancies.

Outcome

__________ expectancies- predications of outcomes of behavior
Ex. "If I drink a margarita at the party, it will make me more sociable"... so you drink the margarita.

Efficacy

_________ expectations- these are predictions about your personal ability to perform the behavior you set out to accomplish.

high

_______ self- efficacy generally allows people to take on more challenges in life and to persevere to see them through.

success

High self- efficacy and _______ go together, yet success helps create more self- efficacy (good reason to give children experiences they can succeed at).

Walter Mischel

_______ _______ overlaps with Rotter and Bandura in his research.

emotional

He adds in ___________ aspects to our behaviors.
ex. How do negative feelings cause us to behave?

experiences

Mischel does not that how we feel depends on how we interpret and label our ___________.