Social Psych Quiz 2

Experiment

a researcher manipulates one variable to determine its effect on another variable

3 main ingredients of experiments

Variable manipulation, random assignment, control

Can you determine cause and effect in experiments?

Yes because you're manipulating the cause

Variable manipulation

A researcher manipulates one variable (cause) to determine its effect on another variable (effect)

Independent variable

what the researcher manipulates

Dependent varibale

what the researcher measures (its value depends on the level of the IV)

random assignment

Assigning Ps to testing groups using a chance procedure

a cofound is a

third variable
an extraneous variable that varies alongside the independent variable

Control

Keeping as many things constant between testing conditions as possible
Helps remove confounds
ex. same room, same experimenter

internal validity

The ability to determine cause and effect between 2 variables
Are we sure X caused Y, and not something else (Z)
Ability to infer cause and effect relationships

External validity

Do these results translate into real outcomes in the real world?
Is this meaningful in predicting real outcomes?

4 perspectives

sociocultural, social learning, social cognitive, evolutionary

sociocultural

Social behavior is the result of group processes (culture)

social learning

social behavior is driven by past learning experiences

social cognitive

Social behavior is influenced by how individuals attend to, remember, and interpret events (what goes on when you're making decisions)

evolutionary

Many social behaviors are the product of psychological adaptations

what does the blind man and the elephant signify?

You can only really look at one thing in social behavior at a time

culture

a set of characteristics (values, norms) that represent a particular group of people

Self presentation (impression management)

The process through which we try to control the impressions people form of us; synonymous with impression management

2 drivers of social media

people's desire to belong and their need to self-present

dramaturgical perspective

the perspective that much of social interaction can be thought of as a play, with actors, performances, settings, scripts, props, roles, and so forth

public self-consciousness

the tendency to have a chronic awareness of oneself as being in the public eye

self monitoring

the tendency to be chronically concerned with one's public image and to adjust one's actions to fit the needs of the current situation

social anxiety

The fear people experience while doubting that they'll be able to create a desired impression

what percent of Americans labeled themselves as shy

30-40%

ingratiation

an attempt to get others to like us

when someone is desirable, we ____ our views to make them ___ desirable to them

change; more

4 tactics people use to ingratiate

-People try to convince others that they like them (using flattery and nonverbal expressions)
-They point out similarities to others
-They make themselves more physically attractive
-They act modestly

multiple audience dilemmas

A situation in which a person needs to present different images to different audiences, often at the same time

self promotion

behaviors intended to create the image of competence

self handicapping

creating circumstances for ourselves that actually obstruct our ability to demonstrate true competence

competence motivation

the desire to perform effectively

shyness

they tend to feel tense, worried, or awkward in unfamiliar social interactions even while merely imagining or anticipating social interaction

basking in the reflected glory

the process of associating ourselves with successful high status others or events

cut off reflected failure

the process of distancing ourselves from unsuccessful, low-status others or events

body language

the popular term for nonverbal signals such as facial expressions, posture, body orientations, and hang gestures