PSYC 2103 CH 5

middle and late childhood

ages 6-11; children gain greater control over the movement of their bodies mastering many gross and fine motor skills that eluded the younger child; contributes to greater reasoning and flexibility of thought

overall physical growth in middle and late childhood

rates of growth generally slow during these years; a child will gain about 5-7 pounds a year and grow about 2-3 inches per year; growth spurt (girls= 9, boys= 11); boys are better at gross motor skills and girls are better at fine motor skills

brain growth in middle and late childhood

two major; one between 6-8 and one between 10-12

6-8 brain growth in middle and late childhood

significant improvements in fine motor skills and eye-hand coordination are noted

10-12 brain growth in middle and late childhood

the frontal lobes become more developed and improvements in logic, planning, and memory are evident


contributes to increases in information processing speed and the child's reaction time

middle and late childhood sports

it has been suggested that the emphasis on competition and athletic skill can be counterproductive and lead children to grow tried of thee game and want to quit

middle and late childhood sports

girls are more likely to have never participated in a sport; boys rate their father as their biggest mentor in sports while girls rate their coach/ PE teachers; children in suburban neighborhoods had a much higher participation of sports than boys and gir

no longer fun

the number one reason middle and late children quit organized sports


a form of competition with the medium being video games; players use computers or specific video game consoles to play video games against each other

physical education

a key component in school on introducing children to sports

Body Mass Index (BMI)

expressed a relationship of height and weight; current measurement for determining excess weight

overweight children

children whose BMI is at or above the 85th percentile for their age

obese children

children whose BMI is at or above the 95th percentile for their age

overweight (people)

linked to impaired brain functioning; large amounts of processed sugars and saturated fat weakened the blood-brain barrier making the brain more vulnerable; less inhibitory control


lack or recognition from parents that children are overweight or obese; parents think overweight is normal and obese is normal or a little heavy


children themselves are not accurately identifying if they are overweight; as the socioeconomic status of the children rose, the frequency of these misconceptions did what?

obese children

run the risk of suffering orthopedic problems such as knee injuries and have increased risk of heart disease and stroke later in life

increased activity level

most helpful in decreasing weight in children; exercise, especially aerobic exercise, can help improve cognitive functioning in overweight children

American Psychological Association (APA)

developed a clinical practice guideline to treat obesity and overweight children 2 to 18; the guidelines recommend counseling on diet, physical activity and "teaching parents strategies for goal setting, problem-solving, monitoring children's behaviors, a

Piaget's preoperational stage

early childhood; thought processes become more logical and organized when dealing with concrete information; understands concepts and can process complex ideas

concrete operational stage

ages 7-11; involves mastering the use of logic in concrete ways and making use of logical principles in solving problems involving the physical world; child can use logic to solve problems but has trouble solving hypothetical problems or considering more

inductive reasoning

logical process in which multiple premises believed to be true are combined to obtain a specific conclusion


children build schemata and are able to organize objects in many different ways; they understand classification hierarchies


objects have qualities that do not change even if the object is altered in some way


the child learns that somethings that have been changed can be returned to their original state


changing one quality (such as height) can be compensated for by changes in another quality (width)


no longer focus on only one dimension of any object (such as the height of the glass) and instead consider the changes in other dimensions too (such as the width of the glass)


arranging items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or width, in a methodical way

concrete operational

major abilities: classification, identity, reversibility, conservation, decentration, seriation

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

working memory

research has suggested that both an increase in processing speed and the ability to inhibit irrelevant information from entering memory are considered greater efficiency of what; children with learning disabilities have difficultly with this


children improve this ability by shifting between tasks or different features of a task

memory strategies

deliberate mental activities that improve the likelihood of remembering including rehearsing information for recall, visualizing and organizing information, creating rhymes, or inventing acronyms; this ability increases from ages 6-10

deficiency in memory stratagies

mediation deficiency, production deficiency, or utilization deficiency

mediation deficiency

occurs when a child does not grasp the strategy being taught, and thus, does not benefit from its use

production deficiency

the child does not spontaneously use a memory strategy and must be prompted to do so

utilization deficiency

refers to children using an appropriate strategy, but it fails to aid their performance


age where memory strategies are a pivotal point

knowledge base

children develop more categories for concepts and learn more efficient strategies for storing information and retrieving information and continues to have more experiences on which to tie the new information

knowledge base

knowledge in particular areas that make learning information easier


refers to the knowledge we have about our own thinking and our ability to use the awareness to regulate our own cognitive processes

critical thinking

a detailed examination of beliefs, courses of action, and evidence

critical thinking skills

analyzing arguments, clarifying information, judging the credibility of a source, making value judgements, and deciding on an action


one of the reasons that children can classify objects in so many ways is that by 5th grade, a child knows 40,000 words; grows at a rate that exceeds that of those in early childhood

new understanding of language

those in middle and late childhood are also able to think of objects in less literal ways; this sophistication of vocabulary is also evidenced by the fact that older children tell jokes and delight in doing so

grammar and flexibility

older children are also able to learn new rules of grammar with more flexibility

speech disorder

by first grade, about 5% of children have a notable what

fluency disorders

affect the rate of speech


a speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or last longer than normal; most common fluency disorder


breaks in the flow of speech (stuttering)

developmental stuttering

a term used to denote the most common form of stuttering that develops during childhood (in contrast to stuttering that develops in response to a neurological event or trauma or emotional stress)

articulation disorder

the inability to correctly produce speech sounds (phonemes) because of imprecise placement, timing, pressure, speed, or slow of movement of the lips, tongue, or throat; does not include accents

disorders of the voice

involves problems with pitch, loudness, and quality of the voice; more prevalent in males than females

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon

worked for French government to develop a measure that would identify children who would be successful with regular school curriculum; the first intelligence test

general intelligence factor (g)

proposed by Charles Spearmen; the construct that the different abilities and skills measured on intelligence tests have in common; relates to abstract thinking an that includes the abilities to acquire knowledge, to reason abstractly, to adapt to novel si

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test

developed by Lewis Terman; a measure of general intelligence made up of a wide variety of tasks, including vocabulary, memory for pictures, naming of familiar objects, repeating sentences, and following commands

specific intelligence (s)

a measure of specific skills in narrow domains

general intelligence vs specific intelligence

Alfred Binet, Theodore Simon, Charles Spearman, Lewis Terman

Triarchic (three-part) theory of intelligence

developed by Robert Sternberg; people may display more or less analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence

analytical intelligence

the ability measured by most IQ tests; includes the ability to analyze problems and find correct answers; academic problem solving and performing calculations

creative intelligence

the ability to adapt to new situations and create new ideas

practical intelligence

the ability to demonstrate common sense and street-smarts

convergent thinking

thinking that is directed towards finding the correct answer to a given problem

divergent thinking

the ability to generate many different ideas or solutions to a single problem


components: expertise, imaginative thinking, risk taking, intrinsic interest, working in creative environments


creative people have studied and learned about a topic

imaginative thinking

creative people view problems in new and different ways

risk taking

creative people take on new, but potentially risky approaches

intrinsic interest

creative people take on projects for interest not money

working in creative environments

the most creative people are supported, aided, and challenged by other people working on similar projects

practical intelligence

intelligence that cannot be gained from books or formal learning

theory of multiple intelligences

Howard Gardner argued that it would be evolutionary functional for different people to have different talents and skills and proposed that there are eight intelligences that can be differentiated from each other; a potential ninth intelligence

autistic savant

people who score low on intelligence tests overall, but who nevertheless may have exceptional skills in a given domain; provides some evidence for multiple intelligences

eight intelligences

linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, kinesthetic (body), interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic

linguistic intelligence

the ability to speak and write well

logical-mathematical intelligence

the ability to use logic and mathematical skills to solve problems

spatial Intelligence

the ability to think and reason about objects in three dimensions

musical intelligence

the ability to perform and enjoy music

kinesthetic (body) intelligence

the ability to move the body in sports, dance, or other physical activities

interpersonal intelligence

the ability to understand and interact effectively with others

intrapersonal intelligence

the ability to have insight into the self

naturalistic intelligence

the ability to recognize, identify, and understand animals, plants, and other living things

general intelligence factor (g)

the many different intelligences are, in fact, correlated and thus represent what?


consistent over time


actually measure intelligence rather than something else


giving it to a large number of people at different ages and computing the average score on the test at each age level


understanding intelligence requires that we know the norms or standards in a given population of people at a given what

Flynn effect

the observation that scores on intelligence tests worldwide have increased substantially over the past decades

mental age

the age at which a person is performing intellectually

intelligence quotient (IQ)

a measure of intelligence that is adjusted for age


mental age/ chronological age x 100

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

the most widely used intelligence test for adults; consists of 15 different tasks and scores on 4 domains

Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition (WIPPSI-IV)

the Wechsler scale has been adapted for preschool children

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V)

the Wechsler scale has also bee adapted for older children and adolescents


Intelligence tests and psychological definitions of intelligence have been heavily criticized since the 1970s for being biased in favor of Anglo-American, middle-class respondents and for being inadequate tools for measuring non-academic types of intellig

normal distribution (bell curve)

the pattern of scores usually observed in a variable that clusters around its average


the actual IQ distribution varies by sex such that the distribution for who is more spread out than the distribution for who

intellectual disability

a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below; the severity of the disability is based on adaptive functioning, or how well the person handles everyday life tasks

down syndrome

a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome; cause of intellectual developmental disorder

Americans with Disabilities Act

made it illegal to discriminate on the basis of mental and physical disability


children who have an IQ of 130 or higher

gifted children

students were not unhealthy or poorly adjusted, but rather were above average in physical health and were taller and heavier than individuals in the general population; the students also had an above average social relationships and were less likely to di


the stereotypes held by parents and teachers can influence children's self-efficacy in various domains; students' performance in these areas mirror these stereotypes, despite the children's actual ability, or the ability of children in the classrooms of t

parental involvement in school

parents vary in their level of involvement with their children's schools; teachers were most receptive to support, praise and agreement coming from parents who were most similar in race and social class with the teachers

family capital

for of power that can be used to improve a child's education


approximately 20% of school aged children and adolescents spoke a language other than English in the home; some speak both languages fluently and some speak both limited


students who speak both languages fluently has definite cognitive advantage; having a large vocabulary in the first language has been shown to save time in learning vocabulary in a second language

cultural differences in language

some consider it polite or even intelligent not to speak unless you have been spoken too while chitchat or personal talk is considered immature and intrusive; eye contact varies; social distance (when conversing) varies; wait time (between question and an

achievement tests

used to measure what a child has already learned

No Child Left Behind

mandates that schools administer achievement tests to students and publish those results so that parents have an idea of their children's performance

Every Student Succeeds Act

state driven and focuses on expanding educational opportunities and improving student outcomes, including in the areas of high school graduation, drop-out rates, and college attendance

Learning Disability (LD)

a specific impairment of academic learning that interferes with a specific aspect of schoolwork and that reduces a student's academic performance significantly; shows itself as a major discrepancy between a student's ability and some feature of achievemen


involves having difficulty in the area of reading; one of the most commonly diagnosed disabilities; appears to be rooted in neurological problems involving the parts of the brain active in recognizing letters, verbally responding, or being able to manipul


a writing disability often associated with dyslexia

phonological dysgraphia

when the person cannot sound out words and write them phonetically


demonstrated by those individuals who can spell regularly spelled words, but not irregularly spelled ones


problems in math; problems with working memory, reasoning, processing speed and oral language, multi-digit skills, and number system knowledge

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

shows a constant pattern of inattention and/or hyperactive and impulsive behavior that interferes with normal functioning


characterized by excessive movement; typically comes across as noisy and boisterous and is hasty, impulsive, and seems to occur without much forethought


boys are 3 times more likely to have than girls; children have lower grades and standardized test scores and higher rates of expulsion, grade retention, and dropping out


specific genes in ADHD are thought to include at least 2 that are important in the regulation of the neurotransmitter what?


link between exposure to nicotine in cigarette smoke during the prenatal period; low birth weight and prematurity also correlated

ADHD treatments

behavioral interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, parent and teacher education, recreational programs, and lifestyle changes (such as getting more sleep); medication is sometimes prescribed

Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

three major laws passed that guaranteed the rights of persons with disabilities

Rehabilitation Act of 1973

requires individuals with disabilities be accommodated in any program or activity that receives Federal funding

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)

prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability; applies to all people and extends to all employment and jobs; specifically requires accommodations to be made in public facilities such as with buses, restrooms, and telephones

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

guarantees the rights of students with disabilities to a free education in the least restrictive environment; free education, due process, fair evaluation of performance, education in the lest restrictive environment, and individualized educational progra

free, appropriate education (IDEA)

an individual or an individual's family should not have to pay for education simply because the individual has a disability

due process (IDEA)

in case of disagreements between an individual with a disability and the schools or other professionals, there must be procedures for resolving the disagreements that are fair and accessible to all parties

fair evaluation of performance in spite of disability (IDEA)

tests or other evaluations should not assume test taking skills that a person with a disability cannot reasonably be expected to have

education in the "least restrictive environment" (IDEA)

education for someone with a disability should provide as many educational opportunities and options for the person as possible, both in the short term and in the long term

an individualized educational program (IDEA)

given that every disability is unique, instructional planning for a person with a disability should be unique or individualized as well

self-fulfilling prophecy

tendency to act in such a way as to make what you predict will happen, will come true

Industry vs. Inferiority (Erikson)

middle and late childhood; constantly doing, planning, playing, getting together with friends, and achieving; this is a very active time, and a time when they are gaining a sense of how they measure up when compared with peers


beliefs about general personal identity


an evaluation of one's identity


the belief that you are capable of carrying out a specific task or of reaching a specific goal; optimum level seems to be at or slightly above true ability


built on the work of Piaget and was interested in finding out how our moral reasoning changes as we get older; wanted us to find out how people decide what is right and what is wrong; we learn our moral values through active thinking and reasoning, and th

moral level one: preconventional morality

comprised of 2 stages; in stage one, moral reasoning is based on concepts of punishment; in second stage, the child bases his or her thinking on self-interested reward

preconventional morality

most superficial understanding of right and wrong; focuses on self-interest; punishment is avoided and rewards are sought

moral level two: conventional morality

those who based their answers on what other people would think;. divided into 2 stages; in stage three, the person wants to please; in stage four, the person acknowledges the importance of social norms or laws and wants to be a good member of the group of

conventional morality

people care about the effect of their actions on others

moral level three: postconventional morality

right and wrong are based on social contracts establish for the good of everyone and that can transcend the self and social convention; divided into 2 stages; in stage five, laws are recognized as social contracts; in stage six, individually determined un

postconventional moral development

it goes beyond the convention of what other people think to a higher, universal ethical principle of conduct that may or may not be reflected in the law; based on concern for others, for society as a whole, and an ethical standard rather than legal standa


provide the opportunity for learning social skills, such as how to communicate with others and how to negotiate differences


play an increasingly important role during middle and late childhood

normative expectation
empathy and understanding

Bigelow and La Gaipa outline 3 states to children's conceptualization of friendship


friendship focused on mutual activities

normative expectation

friendships focused on conventional morality; that is, the emphasis on a friend as someone who is kind and shares with you

empathy and understanding

friends are people who are loyal, committed to the relationship, and share intimate information

momentary physical interaction
one-way assistance
fair-weather cooperation
intimate and mutual sharing
autonomous interdependence

Selman outlines 5 stages of friendship

momentary physical interaction

a friend is someone who you are playing with at this point in time; 3-6

one-way assistance

a friend is someone who does nice things for you; 5-9

fair-weather cooperation

a friend is someone who returns a favor; 7-12

intimate and mutual sharing

a friend is someone who you can tell them things you would tell no one else; 8-15

autonomous interdependence

a friend is someone who accepts you and that you accept as they are; 12+

sociometric assessment

measures attraction between members of a group; children are asked to name 3 people they like to play with and those they do not like to play with

popular children

receive many votes in the "like" category and very few in the "do not like" category

rejected children

receive more unfavorable votes, and few favorable ones

controversial children

mentioned frequently in both categories, like and dislike

neglected children

rarely mentioned in either category, like or dislike

average child

has few like votes with very few negative ones

popular-prosocial children

tend to do well in school and are cooperative and friendly

popular-antisocial children

may gain popularity by acting tough or spreading rumors about others

rejected-withdrawn children

these children are shy and withdrawn and are easy targets for bullies

rejected-aggressive children

are ostracized (excluded) because they are aggressive, loud, and confrontational


defined as unwanted, aggressive behavior among school ages children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance; happens more than once or has the potential to be repeated

verbal bullying

saying or writing mean things, teasing, name calling, inappropriate sexual comments, taunting, threatening to cause harm

social bullying/ relational bullying

involves spreading rumors, leaving people out on purpose, and embarrassing someone on purpose

physical bullying

Involves hurting a person's body or possessions


bullying by using electronic technology

those at risk for bullying

lesbian, gay, bisexual, trangender youth, those with disabilities, those who are socially isolated, those perceived as different, weak, less popular overweight, or having low self-esteem

warning signs of bullying

unexplainable injuries, lost or destroyed possessions, changes in eating or sleeping patterns, declining school grades, not wanting to go to school, loss of friends, decreased self-esteem, and/or self-destructive behaviors

family functions

providing food, clothing, and shelter
encouraging learning
developing self-esteem
nurturing friendships with peers
providing harmony and stability

family tasks

rules are organized around the tasks families must manage/accomplish

good home environment

one in which the child's physical, cognitive, emotional, and social need are adequately met

parenting styles

authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved; affect the relationship with child

authoritative parenting

parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and consistent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decision making; European-Americans

authoritarian parenting

style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child; Asian-, Mexican-, and African-Americans

declines in marriage and increases in divorce

cause of the increase of children living with solo or cohabiting parents

lesbian and gay parenting

no evidence of detrimental developmental effects or difference in the development of gender identity, gender role development, or sexual orientation


causes significantly more behavior problems than those from a matched sample of children and puts financial stress on income

custodial parent

the parent who lives in the same household as the children following a divorce


lower levels of education or occupational status and more likely for children to follow in parents footsteps

how the custodial parent is reacting

the primary factor influencing the way a child adjusts to divorce


biological parents are more likely to continue to be involved with their children jointly when neither parent has remarried; they are less likely to be jointly involved if who has remarried?

blended family

a family whose members were once part of other families; 1 in 6 children live in one

middle and late childhood

gaining about 5 pounds and growing 2.5 inches every year; boys have greater muscle mass while girls have greater balance and agility

learning disabilities

interfere with a specific aspect of school achievement; tend to be less task-orientated, more easily distracted, and less able to concentrate than other children; less organized learners and are less likely to use memory strategies

dyslexia (reading disorder)

reading comprehension ability at least 2 years below developmental expectations (age, IQ, education); significant academic reading impairment or completing activities requiring reading

writing disorder

writing ability below developmental expectations (age, IQ, education); significant academic writing impairment or composing sentences, paragraphs

dyscalculia (math disorder)

math ability below developmental expectations (age, IQ, education); significant academic math impairment or completing activities using math


disorder involving social impairment, communication impairment, and restricted behaviors


the number of individuals diagnosed with and prescribed Ritalin has increased considerably in recent years

developmentally maladaptive inattention

often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities; often has difficulty sustaining attention; does not follow through; difficulty organizing; easily distracted; forgetful


often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat; leaves seat; runs about or climbs excessively; "on the go"; talks excessively


often blurts out answers before questions have been completed; difficulty awaiting turn; interrupts


knowledge of the processes of communication, which grows during middle and late childhood; solid understanding of grammar, patterns of arrangement and relations among words in speech

selective attention

the ability to screen out distractions and focus on a given task


think about one's own thinking


performing a task after watching someone else do it

gifted children

IQ 130+; emerge and develop earlier and learn faster than other children


adult support

sensory memory

a fraction of a second stop for sensory images to determine if further consideration important; normally no age change

short term memory

up to 30 seconds to decide whether information is important enough to sore long-term; 5-9 slots

long-term memory

storehouse of relatively permanent information

shallow processing

physical and perceptual features are analyzed

intermediate processing

stimulus is recognized and labeled

deep processing

semantic, meaningful, symbolic characteristics are used

under 2

able to remember actions and routines that involve them; memory is implicit

2-5 years

Words are now used to encode and retrieve memories. Explicit memory begins, although children do not yet use memory strategies

5-7 years

Children realize they need to remember some things, and they try to do so, usually via rehearsal

7-9 years

children use new strategies if they are taught them and use visual clues and auditory hints

9-11 years

Memory becomes more adaptive and strategic as children become able to learn various memory techniques from teachers and other children

Water Jar Task

conservation of volume experiment is performed with glass beakers of various sizes


a principle of spatial reasoning/ logic which states that substance (about 6-7), weight (about 9-10), and volume (about 11-12) maintain their properties/ quantity despite changes in their form, as long as nothing is added or taken away


maintaining underlying characteristics when others are changed


the notion that something changes can be taken back to its original state

horizontal decalage

children are unable to transfer what they have learned about one type of conservation to a different type

can't conserve

in stage 1 (preoperations), there is absence of conservation

sometimes conserve

transitional stage 2 (intermediate reactions) is interesting because children in this stage indicate only a partial acceptance of the laws of conservation


in stage 3 (concrete operations), conservation is necessary

preconventional (Kohlberg's levels of moral reasoning)

punishment and acceptance

conventional (Kohlberg's levels of moral reasoning)

approval of others: "the golden rule

postconventional (Kohlberg's levels of moral reasoning)

contracts, rights, and democratic laws

postconventional/ autonomous morality

13+ if ever; following internal principles; stage 5, to maintain respect, adherence to law, despite conflict, as rational will of majority; stage 6, to avoid self-condemnation, individual thought regardless of law or opinions

conventional/ role conformity morality

10-13; due to increased peer-orientation and empathy, standards and social rules are internalized; stage 3, please and help others after judging intentions and circumstances, avoid disapproval; stage 4, respect for authority and social order, wrong regard

preconventional morality

4-10; control is external; stage 1, obey to avoid punishments, ignore motives and focus consequences; stage 2, obey to obtain reward, self-interest, weigh want/need and consequences


taking parental standards/ values & integrating into own worldview and self-concept

total immersion/ submersion

students are taught from very beginning in the 2nd language

reverse immersion

schools teach children basic subjects in their native language first and then transition over to English

Bilingual education

combination of total and reverse immersion where instruction occurs in 2 languages simultaneously, but the native language can be used for questions and socializing

code switching

switching back and forth between one linguistic variant and another depending on the cultural context; changing speech to match the situation

formal/ elaborated/ context-free code

children censor profanity and slang when speaking to parents

informal/ restricted/ context-bound code

the way children talk to their friends

two-way (dual-language) learning

students of 2 different languages learn the other language by being able to use their own language, but also by being exposed to the other

physical aggression

hurting someone else's body; more often exerted by males

social/ relational aggression

using relationships as a means to hurt someone's feelings ; more often exerted by girls


someone who teases/threatens beyond what others find acceptable

Selman's peer therapy

matches a bully with a quiet child, both of whom are impulsive, and can move each other into the acceptable range of behavior

prosocial behavior

offering aid without benefit


the ability to understand and share the feelings of another

Stage 0 of Friendship

egocentric; momentary child is egocentric; chooses friends for belongings and proximity; 3-7

stage 1 of friendship

unilateral; child chooses friends who do what child wants to do; 4-9

stage 2 of friendship

reciprocity; give and take relationship; 6-12

stage 3 of friendship

mutual; friendship is vulnerable commitment; 9-15

stage 4 of friendship

autonomous; a good friend takes commitment; 12+

Stage 0: Momentary playmateship (ages 3 to 7)

on this undifferentiated level of friendship, children are egocentric and have trouble considering another person's point of view

Stage 1: One-way assistance (ages 4 to 9)

on this unilateral level, a "good friend" does what the child wants the friend to do

Stage 2: Two-way fair-weather cooperation (ages 6 to 12)

this reciprocal level overlaps stage 1; it involves give-and-take but still serves many separate self-interests

Stage 3: Intimate, mutually shared relationships (ages 9 to 15)

on this mutual level, children view a friendship as ongoing, systematic, committed relationship that incorporates more than doing things for each other

Stage 4 Autonomous interdependence (beginning at age 12)

in this interdependent stage, children respect friends' needs for both dependency and autonomy

Latency (6 to puberty)

dormant sexual feelings; adopted gender roles; time to sublimate in school, friends, and cultural activities

Industriousness vs. Inferiority

children pay attention, study diligently, work toward mastery, and derive pleasure from completing such tasks and receiving reinforcing praise; competence; inertia


use of skill & intelligence to complete tasks

Susan Harter's global self-worth

emphasizes self-esteem resulting from competence not just in school, but in other social situations with family and peers


paralysis of action and though that prevents productive work

social phobia (social anxiety disorder)

anxiety/ fear of humiliation/ embarrassment in social/ performance situations with new people or when under scrutiny; situationally-bound panic attacks, 4+ anxiety symptoms in 10 minutes episode in response to stress