Psych 160 Set 3

Be able to name and define the three types of intergroup (social) bias (Stereotypes, Prejudice, Discrimination) and understand the differences between them.

Stereotype: a belief that certain attributes are characteristic of members of a particular group.
Prejudice: attitudinal and affective responses toward a group and its members.
Discrimination: favorable or unfavorable behavior directed towards members of

Economic Theories for Social Bias

Social bias arises from real competition of varied resources, from land to ideological supremacy. "Realistic group conflict theory" acknowledges that groups conflict over real economic issues, and predicts that prejudice and discrimination increase in con

Robber's Cave Study

(Sherif et al, 1954). Brought 22 similar and normal 5th graders to a camp and divided into 2 groups. Each group underwent teambonding exercises before competing against the other group for covetable prize (resource). Teams hate/dislike each other, even ou

Motivational Theories for Social Bias

Bias might exist just by understanding that there are other groups.

minimal group paradigm

(Tajfel et al. 1974) Assigns study participants to two groups off of arbitrary/outwardly appearing very minimal conditions, then lets them assign a sum 21 points in different divisions to each group - most acted in favor of their group for no real reason

Social identity Theory

Our self esteem comes not from just our own achievements, but also those of the members of the groups we belong to.
"Being an American

IAT, what it measures, how it works, one critique

Implicit association test. Measures subtle, nonconsious prejudices. Series of pictures or words on screen, and responder presses either left or right depending on which rule the picture/word conforms to. Response time suggests prejudice. Critique is that

Be able to describe evidence to suggest that derogating outgroup members can improve one's
self-esteem.

(Fein & Spencer, 1997) Told half participants they did poorly on intellegence test, told other half they did well. Everyone watches job interview. Tell half (none Jewish) that candidate is Jewish, don't tell other half. People who were told they failed te

Cognitive Theories for Social Bias

Stereotyping is unavoidable because categorization is necessary to handle the sheer amount of information available in the world.

Be able to describe construal processes and biased assessments, and how they are informed
by stereotypes.

Not everyone subscribes to a stereotype, but construal processes lead to stereotypes (can be accurate or inaccurate - accurate ex. is lower class kids achieving less) and to stereotypes being invoked. Biased information processing is like confirmation bia

Be able to name and describe the four reasons highlighted in lecture for why intergroup bias persists, sometimes despite people's best intentions: Immunity to disconfirmation, modern racism and sexism, automaticity of stereotypes
and prejudice, self-fulfi

Immunity to disconfirmation: consider members of group going against stereotypes "exceptions" - thus confirming the stereotype more
Modern racism and sexism: benevolent racism/sexism limits victim group's roles, but acts as a compliment. Non-adherers thus

Know what stereotype threat is, know its results, be able to describe one study demonstrating
stereotype threat, be able to identify remedies to prevent stereotype threat.

The fear of confirming stereotypes that others have of their groups. (Spencer et al., 1999) One group told both genders perform equally on math test, other told men perform better. Equal performance in grp 1, women perform worse in grp 2. Remedies - color

Be able to describe and critique the Eberhardt et al. (2006) article ("Looking deathworthy").

Basically participants were more likely to assign harsh punishment on black convicts more adhering to stereotypical black appearance. Not great cause unrepresentative population, etc.

Be able to suggest one intervention combating intergroup bias, as well as support empirically
or theoretically why you expect it to be effective.

Having a superordinate goal that makes two ingroups fall under a larger ingroup - Robber's Cave study supports this.

Know the 'police officer's dilemma' study by Carroll et al. (2002; discussed in lecture, the
text book, and section), its results, and implications. This is the study in which participants have to decide whether to shoot or not shoot a target.

Basically an IAT test where people of different ethnicities appeared in different locations with/without guns. Participants more likely/faster to shoot black people w guns and not shoot white people without guns.

Be able to define "group.

A collection of individuals who have relations to one another that make them interdependent to some significant degree.

Be able to briefly describe the phenomena of social facilitation and social loafing, and
circumstances under which they are most and least likely to occur. Understand mere presence of others: Be able to understand the link between group and performance du

Social facilitation: positive or negative effect on of others' presence on performance; generally happens when people are present. Positive for well-learned tasks, negative for novel tasks.
Social loafing: tendency to exert less effort when working on a g

Identify ways to prevent social loafing.

- Keeping team small
- Defining task well
- Assign separate jobs to each member
Basically run a scrum meeting

Be able to describe studies that pertain to social facilitation and social loafing.

Social facilitation: Michaels et al, 1982 - Pool players judged as good or bad; observers made good players play better, and bad players play worse.
Social loafing: Price et al, social loafing is a naturally occurring process in long term (3-4 month) stud

Be able to discuss how groups influence decision-making (e.g., groupthink, group
polarization). What causes groupthink? What are some ways that groupthink can be prevented?

Groupthink: faulty thinking present in highly cohesive groups where social pressures to reach consensus suppress critical thinking. High pressure environments that cause yes-men (eg. Bay of Pigs, not defending Pearl Harbor, etc) likely to have groupthink.

What is group polarization and how what are the two main accounts explaining it?

Group polarization: group decisions tend to be more extreme than those made by individuals.
1. Persuasive Arguments account: People with stronger convictions have an argument, group = more arguments, thus more people leaning a way (people introduced, beli

Know Zimbardo's model of deindividuation and be able to provide supporting evidence.

Anonymity/blending into a large group/diffusion of responsibility can lead to diminished self-observation and lessened concern of how people view a person. More likely to engage in impulsive/usually inhibited actions.
Evidence: suicide baiting 2x likely w

Be able to define: Aggression, innate and biological factors involved in it; instrumental aggression; emotional/hostile aggression; violence

Hostile aggression: behavior motivated by feelings of anger, hostility; generally intends to cause harm
Instrumental aggression: cause harm for reasons other than anger (economic gain, fame, etc)

Be able to describe what leads to aggression ? heat, media violence, social rejection, income inequality.

Factors: hot weather (really) - Craig Anderson - violet crime more likely to occur on hot days. (Reifman et al, 1991) - baseball pitchers more likely to hit batter on hot day; media violence, to a degree (maybe not rape/murder); video games; social reject

Be able to briefly describe the instinct, frustration-aggression, evolutionary, and social- learning accounts of aggression. Be able to describe evidence that supports those accounts. Be able to describe evidence that conflicts with those theories.

Instinct/biological: motive to aggress is a drive, like hunger. (we don't aggress all the time)
Frustration-aggression: frustration (esp social rejection) -> aggression. Economic hardship linked to violence (1882, 1930 lynchings)
Evolutionary account: agg

Are there gender differences in aggression? If so, what do those gender differences look like? And why might those gender differences exist?

Yes - women are more relationally aggressive (gossip, ostracism, emotional pain). Men are more directly and physically violent. Women, in being more invested in offspring, might propagate habits of being less aggressive in order to stay w mate. Precarious

Be able to describe some cultural differences in aggression.

Cultures vary heavily in their average display of aggression. Alaskan Inuits rarely display aggressive behavior. Yanomami, who live in the Amazon region, aggression is encouraged in children, intratribal fighting with spears and knives is a weekly source

What is a "Culture of Honor"? Be able to describe the "******* study

Culture prevalent in US South where men are more concerned than normal about their reputation for being macho.
******
study - Cohen et al, someone bumps into participant and calls him an "
******." People some south get more red in the face, more cortisol

Be able to describe and critique the Brescoll & Uhlmann (2008) article ("Status conferral,
gender, & workplace emotion expression")

Bascially men who are aggresive are viewed as bueno, but women who are aren't.

Be able to define: Altruism

Prosocial behavior that benefits others without regard for consequences on the self.

Be able to describe when people help or do not help others.

People might help others when social rewards (increase in reputation) can be acquired. Situational factors very important. More bystanders reduce chance of altruistic behavior, lack of clear call for help (upshot) can lead to less action. Kinship selectio

Be able to define empathic concern and empathic distress.

(empathy altruism hypothesis) empathetic concern (automatic emotion-like impulse to help) leads directly to helping, not to relieve own distress.
Empathic/personal distress: people help to reduce their own distress - eg. crying triggers feelings of distre

Be able to describe the "Jerusalem-to-Jericho" study ? Which factors determine helping
behavior.

Seminary students encounter someone in need as they go to give talk. People in more of a rush less likely to help. Topic of the talk (good samaritan vs random shit) didn't matter.
Situational factors matter more.

What is the bystander effect? What are diffusion of responsibility and pluralistic ignorance?
Be able to describe one study that illustrates the bystander effect.

Bystander effect: presence of (more) bystanders stops any single bystander from intervening and helping
Diffusion of responsibility: A reduction in sense of urgency and thus liklihood of helping, predicated on thinking others will help
pluralistic ignoran

Be able to describe to name two strategies to use to minimize the bystander effect.

1. Make your need clear
2. Select a specific bystander to help

Be able to describe evolutionary theories of altruism. Be able to name and describe the two
main mechanisms they propose to explain altruism (kinship selection and reciprocal
altruism).

Altruistic behavior is generally nonconducive to survival.
Kinship selection: Favours propogation of ones genes, even if not by ones own survival and reproduction (relatives' reproduction)
Reciprocal altruism: Help others now, but expect them to help you

Be able to describe the prisoner's dilemma and know whether cooperation is a rational
decision

...

Be able to describe "hidden egoism" and "true altruism" psychological theories of altruism. Know which theory you endorse more strongly, and be able to supply empirical evidence in support of your opinion.

Hidden egoism: people help because of things like social reward or reduction of their own distress; helping makes people feel better about themselves
True altruism: people have an empathic concern for others (automatic impulse to help) without concern for

Be able to describe Batson et al.'s (1983) study of altruism.

Ask will you be shocked instead of other participant.
Two scenarios:
1. stay and watch
2. you can leave
Both say yes if they have to watch, but only true altrusitics say yes when they can leave (easy escape). Hidden egoism rather reduce distress by leavin

� Be able to define: Stress, fight-flight response

Stress: the feeling that demands threaten or exceed one's capacities/resources
Fight-flight response: cannon(1932) evolutionarily adaptive sympathetic nervous system activation
both are adaptive for primal ancestors (too often/chronic now)

� Know the relationship between stress and health: Is the stress response adaptive? If not, when is it maladaptive? And why do we have it?

Yes, it was adaptive in the past, but not so much now (lasts a long time, routine life, etc). For survival.

� Be able to describe the viral-challenge study (Cohen, 1996).

420 participants kept in quarantine, stress (life events, percieved stress) measured, each one give either nose spray w/ virus, or placebo. Those who didnt get placebos were more likely to get cold symptoms if they were stressed.

� Know types of coping and its effect on health: What are "problem-focusing coping" and "emotion- focused coping"? Under what circumstances are they adaptive? When might they be maladaptive? What types of emotion-focused coping appear to be maladaptive?

Problem-focused coping: altering stressful situation. not always possible, depends on amt of control you have
Emotion focused coping: reduce distress; not alwyas healthy
emotion focused: holding it in, reconstrual, distraction, denial, relaxation. Opening

� What do we know about the relationship between socioeconomic status and health?

Negative correlation between socioeconomic status and risk for death/infant mortality

� What is "social support"? Is social support generally good for you? What evidence is there to support your claim?

Material/informational/emotional support. Yes, good. Spiegel 1993 - women w/ breast cancer lived 18 months longer on avg if they went to grp meetings.

� What are the two key ways through which the social context (e.g., social class) influences health outcomes?

1. People in lower socioeconomic status have poorer health due to chronic stress
2.Construal of lower rank/status can cause stress-related illness

� What are "sense of control" and "optimism"? How do these two construal processes lead to better health?

Sense of control - having agency
Optimism - viewpoint that positive outcomes are likely
both associated with better health by reducing stress

Be able to describe interventions that have been shown to impact people's lives (e.g., academic performance of minority students; "entertainment education"). Be able to provide evidence in support of them, and have hypotheses about how they work.

Reframign social concerns of black students ("I don't belong here") as a common struggle of any student promotes learning (cognitive dissonance).
Sabido's telenovels taught off Bandura's principle that people learn good and bad behavior from watchign othe

� Be able to describe how social fears and academic achievement are linked.

Social fears, which are specific to groups, can impact academic achievement. Addressing these fears (eg. different welcome letters or different framing of problems) can promote academic achievement (more studying)

� Be able to define Dweck's incremental and entity theories of intelligence. What tendencies and outcomes are associated with these mindsets (for example, in students when they experience failure)?

incremental - intellegence is a thing that can be changed with effort
entitty - intelligence is what it is
Incrememntal belief leads to attributing failure to lack of effort, and consquently working hard
Entity belief leads to not working after failure, b

� Be able to define the procedures before a case goes to trial, such as eyewitness testimony, false confession, factors effecting eyewitness accuracy.

Eyewitness testimony: have people at the scene give information (though oftentimes less accurate than thought)
Factors affecting: generalizations of memories are highly imperfect and susceptible to information provided after the fact
False confession: con

� Be able to define what jury selection, jury deliberation, jury decision rule and damage award is.

Jury selection: begins with voir dire (judge/attorneys try to determien if jurors are impartial), scientific jury selection allows for demographic/statistic based selection
Jury deliberation: when juries deliberate?
Jury decision rule: when a jury can giv

� Be able to define what procedural justice is and be able to list 3 factors that shape a person's sense of procedural justice.

Procedural justice - assessments of whether processes leading to legal outcomes are fair
3 factors: assessments of authority neurality; trust in the system; respect for everyone

� Be able to understand the difference between just desserts motive and deterrence.

Just desserts: avenge a prior deed (eye for an eye). Often calibrated to moral offensiveness.
Deterrance: prevent potential future crimes - punishments change other peoples' cost-benefit analysis of committing crimes.

o What is the rationale for studying racial segregation to understand cognition?

Use information about the way the world is in order to make inferences about how the world should be
Theorizing on the the relation between the environment and cognition
The presence of racial segregation signals information about intergroup relations.The

Be able to briefly describe the methods and results from the study in which
participants were asked to judge the racial preferences of people in integrated or
segregated neighborhoods.

221 mono-white UW students. Participants' perceived that children in segregated neighborhoods feel more warm towards same-race to cross-race individuals

o Understand what misrepresentation and omission refer to.

misrepresentation: people accounted for, but not correctly
ommission: just not accounted for

o Understand the link between omission on the one hand and prejudice and inequality
on the other hand.

Omissions reinforce prejudice and inequality because they lead to a misunderstanding of Native people's lived experiences.
-Reinforce the idea that Natives are people of the past
-Lead people to minimize racism
(don't realize that native people are still

o Be able to briefly describe the methods and results from the study which investigated
the omission of Native Americans from the public consciousness.

The modern form of bias against Native Americans is the omission of contemporary ideas and representations that reflect the ways in which Native people contribute to society (Fryberg & Eason, 2017).
4.5k college students, 2.9k mecahnical turks, most dont