PSYCH 306 - Midterm 2

Be familiar with the following processes: neurogenesis; synaptogenesis; myelination; synaptic pruning and programmed cell death (apoptosis)

Neurogenesis
- Proliferation of neurons through cell division
� Neuro-progenitor cells undergo mitosis, but neurons are post-mitotic cells (once neurons formed, do not divide to form new cells)
- Occur parentally and postnatally
Synaptogenesis
- Synapses

Identify the two neural tube defects discussed in lecture and know which part of the neural tube is involved in each

- Spinal bifida: bottom of tube fail to close properly (part of spinal cord is exposed and nerve damage causes at least some paralysis of the leg)
- Anencephaly: top of tube fail to close properly (main portion of the brainstem fails to develop)

After birth, what is the order in which regions of the cerebral cortex develop?

1) Primary motor, auditory and visual cortex
2) Language areas such as the Broca's and Wernicke's area
3) Temporal, parietal and occipital lobe (spatial)
4) Frontal lobe

What is lateralization? What is the evidence for this in the newborn? (see textbook and lecture slides)

- Process by which each half of the brain becomes specialized for certain functions
Some lateralization evident at birth
o Example: brain activity in response to speech vs. non-speech sounds
- If played speech sounds or display positive state of arousal t

In most right handed individuals, the brain's functions are lateralized in a pattern whereby language is housed in the left hemisphere. What happens in the case of left handed individuals?

On average, left handers are less likely than right handers to have language lateralized to the left side of the brain. However, the majority of both left and right handers have language lateralized to the left brain

Understand the difference between experience expectant and experience dependent brain growth

Experience Expectant
o Refers to young brain's rapidly developing organization
o Occurs early
o Depends on ordinary experiences the developing brain "expects" to encounter (e.g., patterned visual stimulation, voices, touch)
o The normal wiring of the huma

What is the difference between pre-reaching and directed reaching?

Pre-reaching
- If babies see an object within their reaching field, they will often make clumsy swiping movement of the general direction of the object
- Evident in newborn then disappears around 7 weeks
Directed Reaching
- Now have enough muscle control

What is the ulnar grasp and when does it emerge?

- Whole hand grasp: clumsy motion, fingers close against palm
- Around 5 month (earliest)

What is the pincer grasp and at what age does it emerge?

- Thumb and index finger work independently of the other fingers
- Around 9-12 months

What is "cruising"?

Shuffling along while holding onto furniture
- Walk about unsteadily while holding onto things for support

What is the difference between a fine and a gross motor skill?

Gross motor skills
- Involve large muscles and whole body or limb movements (before fine motor skills)
o Examples: walking, kicking a ball
Fine motor skills
- Finely tuned movements that involve the small muscles (fingers)
o Examples: turning a door handl

With experience, children learn to adjust their motor skills to navigate different surfaces. What did Adolph find when she tested newly crawling/walking and experienced crawlers/walkers on different slopes (this question refers to the study described in l

* Newly crawling infants overestimated their abilities, experienced crawling infants made better judgements, when infants started walking, they made the same mistakes again
New crawlers
- Shallow slopes -> no hesitation
- Steep slopes -> pause, down headf

Describe and explain the recent trend that has been identified in motor development in the USA (hint: the material about delayed crawling)

- Trend: many infants crawling at a later age than in the past
- Parents are encouraged to laying infants on their backs instead of putting them on their tummy to sleep
- To prevent airway getting blocked
- Little motivation to roll over onto stomach (vie

There are sex differences in many gross motor skills. The textbook provides different reasons for why this is the case in childhood vs. adolescence - make sure that you are familiar with the explanations provided for these two age-groups (textbook p. 180)

Childhood
- Small differences in physical capacity
- Social pressures for boys to be active and physical exaggerate small genetic differences
- Example: boys can only throw a ball further than girls when using dominant hand (more practice can be an advant

What is the maturational account of motor development? Be familiar with the stair climbing example provided in lecture.

- Maturational account: motor development depends on the development of the brain's motor program
o Training on climbing stairs was not useful until the child was developmentally ready
- At around 10 and a half months of age, one of the twin girls was giv

What is the dynamic systems account of motor development? Be familiar with the stepping reflex example provided in lecture.

- Dynamic systems account: emphasizes the influence of many factors, including neural mechanisms, increases in strength, posture control, balance, perceptual skills, motivation, and properties of the environment
o Stepping reflex usually disappears by aro

- What is an endogenous smile?
- What are exogenous smiles?
- What is a social smile?
- What is the order in which these three types of smiles emerge?(you do not need to know ages)

Endogenous smile
- Occur mainly in REM sleep
- Triggered by internal stimulation in nervous system activity, not connected to anything happening in the external environment (in response to internal changes such as REM sleep)
Exogenous smile
- Initially re

What factors might influence whether an infant shows stranger anxiety? (also see textbook) (4)

- Age of stranger: less fearful of younger individuals vs. adult
- Behavior of stranger (stranger's style of interaction): if approaching abruptly or excitedly, will upset baby
- Familiarity of environment: if viewed in their own home, will less likely to

Describe the research presented in lecture that supports the idea that infants learn to fear some stimuli more readily than others because this promoted survival in our evolutionary past

Study 1
- 3-5-year-olds were asked to identify a snake among pictures of harmless objects like flowers or to find a flower picture amongst pictures of snakes
- 3-5-year-olds were faster to pick out a picture of a snake among flowers than a picture of flow

*** Why don't 1-year-olds display self-conscious emotions?

They have not yet developed self awareness or self consciousness

*** Why do guilt, pride, shame, and evaluative embarrassment emerge after exposure embarrassment?

Exposure embarassment simply requires self awareness (or self consciousness) whereas those other emotions require self evaluation (in addition to self consciousness)
- Self evaluation emerges later than self consciousness

What is the difference between exposure and evaluative embarrassment?

- Exposure embarrassment: when attention focused on the self and feel exposed
o Center of attention
o Example: waiters sing happy birthday to you
- Evaluate embarrassment: the result of a mildly negative self-evaluation
o Mild form of shame
o Often elicit

**** Describe the three temperament patterns that Thomas and Chess identified in their classic study

Easy"
o Generally cheerful mood
o Easy to calm
o Positive approach to unfamiliar objects and people without too much concern
o Regular in their bodily functions (e.g., feeding, sleeping)
o Adjusted readily to new experiences (transition)
"Difficult"
o Hi

Understand Thomas and Chess' notion of "goodness of fit" (textbook provides a lot of information on this concept)

Describes how temperament and environmental pressure combine to affect the course of development
- Children's adjustment depends on how their temperament meshes with environmental properties, expectations, and demands
- Involves creating child-rearing env

What did Lewis et al. (1993) find when they compared the responses of Caucasian and Japanese babies to receiving an injection? How can we explain these findings? (2)

o Caucasian American and Japanese 4-month old
o Salivary cortisol (pre- and post-injection)
o Behavioral response during and after injection
o Caucasian infants -> more intense emotional displays during injection
- Took longer to calm down
o Both groups s

**** According to Bowlby, what are the 4 phases in the formation of an attachment (make sure you understand each phase, don't just learn the names of the phases)?

1) Pre-attachment phase
- Attachment behaviors "reflexive"
o Example: infant has innate signals to ensure human contact
- No expectation about outcome of signals
o Baby cry because he/she is uncomfortable, not because she/he is trying to get a response fr

**** What are the main behaviors displayed by avoidant, resistant, secure, and disorganized-disoriented infants in the "strange situation"?

* Avoidant
- Engage in exploration and play, focus on toys
- May seem "independent"
- Emotional flat and unresponsive to primary caregiver
o Rarely see child smiling at primary caregiver
- As comfortable with stranger as parent
o Might treat stranger with

**** What are the main caregiver characteristics associated with each of the four infant attachment categories?

Secure
- Highly sensitive parenting
o Example: attentive to signals; accurate interpretation; appropriate, prompt and consistent responding
Avoidant
- Rejecting, emotionally unavailable, impatient
OR
- Intrusive, overly stimulating
o Provide high level of

How is temperament related to the quality of the attachment relationship? (pay very close attention to the lecture slides - the textbook is somewhat vague about this)

- Infants with difficult temperament are more likely to be classified as resistant
- When a link is found, its between the insecure-resistant (C) attachment classification and a difficult temperament
- If temperament does have an influence on attachment,

****
- In Northern German samples, what type of attachment insecurity is more frequent relative to the USA and why?
- In traditional Japanese families, what type of attachment insecurity is more frequent relative to the USA and why?
- In Israeli kibbutz w

Northern German
- Avoidant
o Believed that northern German were training their babies to be independent
o Cultural ideal was to not have babies that were too attached
Traditional Japanese Families
- Resistant
o Traditional Japanese mom try to foster depen

**** Which attachment category seems to be most consistently related to later negative developmental outcomes? (see textbook discussion of attachment and later development)

Disorganized attachment category
- Consistently related to internalizing problems (fear and anxiety) and externalizing problems (anger and aggressions) during the preschool and school years
- Also show inappropriate role reversals in an apparent effort to

Bowlby argued that there is a link between infant attachment security and later social relationships. Describe the three reasons discussed in class suggesting that infants with an insecure attachment to their primary caregiver are not necessarily going to

1) Attachment only ONE among many influences on peer relationships
a) Meta-analysis: Schneider et al. (2001)
- Examined correlations between infant attachment and children's peer relationships
- Overall effect size was small to moderate
- Insecure attachm

Define assimilation and accommodation

Assimilation
- Translate incoming information in terms of current knowledge structures (or schemes)
o Example: two-year-old encounters a cow for the first time, she goes through her collection of schemes and sees that she has a scheme for dogs, she might

**** Identify and briefly describe the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor period (you do not need to know the ages)

1) Reflexive schemes
- Build knowledge by exercising and adapt their "reflexes"
o Some reflexes are not relevant to cognitive development
o Use their senses whenever they can
- Applied to more and more objects/events
- By end, change in response to new ex

**** What is object permanence? According to Piaget, when is the child's understanding of this concept fully mature?

- Object performance: understanding that objects continue to exist, even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched
- 18-24 months

****
- Describe the A-not B task
- Describe the A-not B error
- Why, according to Piaget, do infants make this mistake?
- What is the research evidence that suggests that poor memory is NOT a good explanation of this error?
- How might poor inhibitory con

- A-not B task: an experimenter hides an attractive toy under box "A" within the baby's reach. The baby searches for the toy, looks under box "A", and finds the toy. This activity is usually repeated several times (always with the researcher hiding the to

**** What is conservation?

The idea that changing the outward appearance of objects does not change their key properties

**** What is centered thinking (or centration) and how does it explain preoperational children's failure to conserve?

- Centration: the tendency to focus on only a single aspect of a problem even if two or more aspects are relevant

Piaget argued that preoperational children are "perception bound" - use the "pencil in the water" example from lecture to describe this cognitive limitation

- Perception-bound: focus on what is perceptually striking; problems distinguishing appearance vs. reality
Example: pencil in water
o Get the child to agree that the pencil is straight, but when pencil is placed in the water, the child will think the penc

**** In what stage does logical reasoning first emerge according to Piaget?

Concrete operations stage

**** What is seriation? In what stage do children first become able to succeed on tasks assessing this ability?

- Seriation: ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension
- Ask child to rank the sticks from shortest or longest
- Preoperational children simply line up pairs of long and short sticks or line sticks up by bottom in a line
- Concrete operational think

What is horizontal decalage? Provide an example of this.

- Horizontal decalage: different levels of achievement for problems that involve the same mental operations (gradual mastery of logical concepts)
- Refers to the inconsistent performance on tasks that requires the same cognitive processes
- Example: indiv

**** What is the main limitation of the concrete operational period?

Cannot reason logically about hypothetical, purely verbal, or abstract problems
- Example: fail a purely verbal form of the transitive inference task, cannot see objects = cannot solve it

**** What is hypothetical-deductive reasoning?

- Generate hypotheses and formulate a systematic plan for testing each one
- Can use the "scientific method" to solve problems (i.e., isolate one variable, hold all others constant)

**** Aside from hypothetical-deductive reasoning, what are the other main cognitive achievements that Piaget described in the formal operational period? (3)

- Hypothetical and abstract reasoning
� Think logically about things that may never happen
o Example: where would you put the 3rd eye and why?
� Also think logically about things that can't be directly perceived (abstract ideas)
- Propositional logic: can

****
- According to David Elkind, what are the imaginary audience and the personal fable?
- According to Elkind, when do these emerge and why?

- Imaginary audience: people who are experiencing it feel as though their behavior or actions are the main focus of other people's attention
� Assume they are the focus of everyone else's thoughts
� Become highly introspective and absorbed with own though

**** How do each type of infant in the strange situation respond to parent upon reunion?

- Secure: seek contact, calmed by contact
- Avoidant: avoids parent
- Resistant: difficulty calming, resistance/anger towards parent
- Disorganized: frightened by parent, confused behavior