A pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world.
Psychodynamic perspectives on personality
Emphasize that that personality is primarily unconscious (that is, beyond awareness).
Refers to physical symptoms that have no physical cause.
Psychodynamic Theorists believe
That behavior is only a surface characteristic and that to truly understand someone's personality, we have to explore the symbolic meanings of that behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind.
Consists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir for sexual energy. The id has no contact with reality. This "it" is a pool of amoral and often vile urges pressing for expression. The id works according to the pleasure principle, the Freud
The Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality. Indeed, according to Freud, the ego abides by the reality principle. That is, it tries to bring the individual pleasure within the norms of society. The ego helps us to test rea
The harsh internal judge of our behavior. The superego is related in what we often call conscience and evaluates the morality of our behavior. Like the id, the superego does not consider reality; it considers only whether the id's impulses can be satisfie
are tactics the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. Defense mechanisms are unconscious; we are not aware that we are calling on them.
The most primitive defense mechanism, in which the ego simply refuses to acknowledge anxiety-producing realities.
directing unacceptable impulses at a less threatening target. Through displacement, the ego allows someone to express his id impulse in a way that will not land him in trouble.
A special form of displacement in which the person expresses an unconscious wish in a socially valued way, such a s a boxer who sublimates his aggressive drive in the ring.
A defense mechanism in which we see in others those impulses that we most rear or despise in ourselves.
The most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism. Repression pushes unacceptable id impulses back into the unconscious mind. Repression is the foundation for all of the psychological defense mechanisms, whose goal is to repress threatening impulses, that
Parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages of development.
(First 18 months) The infant's pleasure centers on the mouth. Chewing, sucking, and biting are the chief sources of pleasure that reduce tension in the infant.
(18 to 36 months) During a time when most children are experiencing toilet training, the child's greatest pleasure involves the anus and urethra and their functions. Freud recognized that there is pleasure in "going" and "holding it" as well as in the exp
(3 to 6 years) The name of Freud's third stage comes from the Latin word phallus, which means "penis". Pleasure focuses on the genitals as the child discovers that self-stimulation is enjoyable.
The Oedipus Complex
The boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother. Eventually, the boy recognizes that his father might punish him for these incestuous wishes, specifically by cutting off the boy's penis.
Refers to the boy's intense fear of being mutilated by his father.
(6 years to puberty) This phase is not a developmental stage but rather a kind of psychic time-out. After the drama of the phallic stage, the child sets aside all interest in sexuality. Although we now consider these years extremely important to developme
(Adolescence and adulthood) The general stage is the time of sexual reawakening, a point when the source of sexual pleasure shifts to someone outside the family. Freud believed that in adulthood the individual becomes capable of the two hallmarks of matur
Occurs when a particular psychosexual stage colors an individual's adult personality.
(1885-1952) Creator of the Sociocultural Approach. Security not Sex. Both sexes envy the attributes of the other. Women envy penis because of the status that society bestows on those who have one.
(1875-1961) Creator of the Analytical Theory. Shared Freud's interest in the unconscious but thinks he underplayed the unconscious mind's role in personality.
The name of the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past.
Emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people.
The passive feminine side of the two common archetypes each of us have.
The assertive masculine side of the two common archetypes each of us have.
Another archetype that represents the public mask that we all wear during social interactions.
(1870-1937) Creator of Individual Psychology. Early follower of Freud. Believed that people have the ability to take their genetic inheritance and their environmental experiences and act upon them creatively to become the person they want to be.
People are motivated by purposes and goals-thus, perfection, not pleasure, is their key motivator.
Adler's term for the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities.